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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front Envir Sci Eng Chin    2011, Vol. 5 Issue (4) : 552-563     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-010-0263-5
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Source apportionment of ambient PM10 in urban areas of Wuxi, China
Bo HAN1, Xiaohui BI1(), Yonghua XUE1, Jianhui WU1, Tan ZHU1, Baogui ZHANG1, Jianqing DING2, Yuanxin DU2
1. College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China; 2. Wuxi Environmental Monitoring Center, Jiangsu 214023, China
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Abstract

A total of 168 PM10 samples were collected during the year of 2005 at eight sites in the city of Wuxi in China. Fifteen chemical elements, three water-soluble ions, total carbon and organic carbon were analyzed. Six source categories were identified and their contributions to ambient PM10 in Wuxi were estimated using a nested chemical mass balance method that reduces the effects of colinearity on the chemical mass balance model. In addition, the concentrations of secondary aerosols, such as secondary organic carbon, sulfate and nitrate, were quantified. The spatially averaged PM10 was high in the spring and winter (123 μg·m-3 and low in the summer–fall (90 μg·m-3). According to the result of source apportionment, resuspended dust was the largest contributor to ambient PM10, accounting for more than 50% of the PM10 mass. Coal combustion (14.6%) and vehicle exhaust (9.4%) were also significant source categories of ambient PM10. Construction and cement dust, sulfates, secondary organic carbon, and nitrates made contributions ranging between 4.1% and 4.9%. Other source categories such as steel manufacturing dust and soil dust made low contributions to ambient PM10.

Keywords source apportionment      inhalable particulate matter      nested chemical mass balance method     
Corresponding Author(s): BI Xiaohui,Email:bixh@nankai.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 05 December 2011
 Cite this article:   
Bo HAN,Xiaohui BI,Yonghua XUE, et al. Source apportionment of ambient PM10 in urban areas of Wuxi, China[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng Chin, 2011, 5(4): 552-563.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-010-0263-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2011/V5/I4/552
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Bo HAN
Xiaohui BI
Yonghua XUE
Jianhui WU
Tan ZHU
Baogui ZHANG
Jianqing DING
Yuanxin DU
Fig.1  Map of the study area of Wuxi (a) and locations of ambient sampling sites (b)
(Note: DC: Ding Cun; YH: Yu Hong; CZ: Cao Zhang; Wang Zhuang; QT: Qi Tang; DT: Dong Ting; YQ: Yan Qiao; MS: Ma Shan)
No.site nameelevation (above ground)description
1Ding Cun (DC)13 msouth-east of urbanrepresent industrial and heavy traffic area
2Yu Hong (YH)14 mwest of urbanrepresent residential and educational area
3Cao Zhang (CZ)10 msouth of urbanrepresent residential and commercial area
4Wang Zhuang (WZ)12 msouth-east of urbanrepresent industrial area
5Qi Tang (QT)12 msouth-west of ruralrepresent residential and educational area
6Dong Ting (DT)10 meast of ruralrepresent industrial, residential and commercial area
7Yan Qiao (YQ)8 mnorth of ruralrepresent industrial and residential area
8Ma Shan (MS)6 msouth-west of ruralrepresent tourism area
Tab.1  Ambient PM sampling sites and their configurations
No.source categorysample typesample number
1soil dusttopsoil from cropland, orchard land and bared land30
2coal combustion dustcoal fly ash from industrial stoves and kiln16
3construction and cement dustraw materials for cement production and dust from construction sites13
4steel manufacturing dustdust collected from precipitatortwo grab dust samples collected from the fabric filter on different dates5
5vehicle exhaustdust samples collected from the fabric filter. Filter samples from the vehicle exhaust pipe4
6resuspend dustdust collected from the surfaces of windowsills, flat roofs, and balustrades, 5-15m high above the ground30
Sum98
Tab.2  Source types of PM and sample descriptions rows of the table could match up better
Fig.2  Concentrations of PM at the study sites
(Note: DC: Ding Cun; YH: Yu Hong; CZ: Cao Zhang; Wang Zhuang; QT: Qi Tang; DT: Dong Ting; YQ: Yan Qiao; MS: Ma Shan)
Fig.3  Chemical compositions of ambient PM at eight sites in Wuxi in 2005 (μg·m)
(Note: DC: Ding Cun; YH: Yu Hong; CZ: Cao Zhang; Wang Zhuang; QT: Qi Tang; DT: Dong Ting; YQ: Yan Qiao; MS: Ma Shan)
speciessoil dustconstruction and cement dustcoal combustion duststeel manufacturing dustresuspended dustvehicle exhaust
Na1.73±0.521.59±0.301.75±0.520.86±0.012.70±0.910.49±0.18
Mg0.71±0.261.48±0.490.24±0.171.56±0.041.02±0.130.29±0.15
Al12.81±2.685.12±1.795.31±4.630.53±0.018.08±1.020.24±0.13
Si25.68±1.778.62±1.2712.03±8.261.31±0.1319.13±3.00.67±0.58
K0.97±0.290.89±0.170.98±0.293.28±0.071.51±0.490.24±0.21
Ca1.78±1.2841.10±2.384.31±3.579.23±0.1914.31±2.002.27±0.81
Ti0.22±0.121.71±0.370.46±0.170.04±0.000.48±0.120.48±0.07
Cr0.01±0.000.03±0.010.00±0.000.03±0.000.02±0.010.01±0.02
Mn0.06±0.020.08±0.020.02±0.010.98±0.010.07±0.010.01±0.00
Fe2.51±0.321.18±0.201.74±1.6336.68±0.021.80±0.420.48±0.17
Co0.00±0.000.00±0.000.00±0.000.03±0.000.00±0.000.02±0.01
Ni0.01±0.000.01±0.000.00±0.000.01±0.010.01±0.000.03±0.02
Cu0.00±0.000.01±0.000.00±0.000.04±0.010.02±0.010.01±0.01
Zn0.01±0.010.01±0.000.02±0.030.98±0.090.13±0.030.23±0.13
Pb0.00±0.000.00±0.000.00±0.000.32±0.030.05±0.020.01±0.02
TC0.58±0.451.85±0.4027.44±21.501.30±0.2911.72±12.6182.14±8.86
OC0.28±0.220.95±0.2211.58±8.170.82±0.085.41±5.1366.92±5.16
Cl-0.00±0.000.02±0.020.01±0.020.72±0.230.22±0.151.48±0.28
NO3-0.00±0.000.00±0.000.00±0.000.00±0.000.36±0.251.42±0.40
SO42-0.02±0.051.41±0.470.06±0.101.66±0.236.31±2.451.83±1.21
Tab.3  Source profiles of PM in Wuxi/%
Fig.4  Linear regression of the yearly EC–OC data
secondary OC concentration /(μg·m-3)percentage of OC /%percentage of TC /%percentage of mass /%
annual average5.6244.8721.435.00
spring5.0134.1618.893.94
summer-fall4.3851.4117.804.87
winter7.6356.9628.376.36
Tab.4  Levels of secondary OC at the eight sites in Wuxi
Fig.5  Seasonal and annual average source contribution to ambient PM in urban areas of Wuxi (%)
(Note: SD: Soil dust; CD: Coal combustion dust; CCD: Construction and cement dust; SMD: Steel manufacturing dust; VE: Vehicle exhaust; RD: Resuspended dust)
WuxiTianjinJinanYinchuan
resuspended dust51343059
soil dust211223
construction and cement dust4333
coal combustion dust14161923
vehicle exhaust91397
sulfate5702
nitrate4201
summary of open sources57485565
Tab.5  Contributions of main sources to PM in Wuxi and other cities/%
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