The present study is set in the context of ongoing educational reform that advocates fostering self-regulated learners and using assessment to improve learning. Drawing on existent research on classroom assessment (CA) and self-regulated learning (SRL), the authors have formulated a conceptual framework outlining the CA features that promote SRL among students. Guided by this framework, the 12 high school teachers’ CA practice was scrutinized to find out to what extent their CA was pro-SRL. Based on interview data and classroom observation, gaps were found in Chinese high school teachers’ CA. First, CA tasks are primarily low-level closed-end problems, with rare exceptions. Second, students are not allowed much autonomy in CA. Third, self-assessment practice is mostly self-grading. Fourth, peer-assessment is uncommon and mainly involves simply marking peers’ work. Fifth, teacher feedback is focused on task and process levels; regulation-level feedback is less common. Sixth, despite teachers’ encouragement, most students feel threatened by CA.