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    Mine Esmer, Lana Kudumovic
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 284-303.

    This paper aimed to discuss urban conservation challenges along the axes of two streets in the neighborhood of Yenikapı leading towards Kumkapı. The Yenikapı area of the historic peninsula of Istanbul is known to have been inhabited since prehistoric times, and it was the site of an important late antiquity port. Many cultural assets, including monuments from a number of periods and nineteenth century houses, remain in the area, but jarring changes have occurred due to newly built constructions, town planning decisions, and the development of public transport. Before any proposal for future area conservation activities, the current state of conservation was inspected through onsite analyses conducted along Paşazade, Imrahor Hamamı, and Sepetçi Selim streets. By analyzing the pressures affecting the historical peninsula, the challenges in the conservation effort of the study area were determined, followed by some proposals for its enhancement and general conservation.

    The paper stems from the studio of Urban Preservation-Conservation for Graduate Studies Programme, which was run between February and June 2019 under the coordination of the authors. Highlighting the value of the cultural heritage and historic importance of the area, revitalization to preserve the urban character was suggested. The current state of conservation was investigated through recent onsite analyses, one of the most important tasks in understanding the integrity and authenticity of the area.

    Agnieszka Faustyna Szuta
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 274-283.

    This study explores the architecture and arrangement of prayer spaces in public buildings. It examines whether Polish airports have prayers spaces and whether a correlation exists between the name (e.g., “multi-faith space,” “place of prayer,” and “place of focus”) and design. The study is supported by analyses of ecumenical spaces, which have recently been brought into service andwhere a visible symbiosis exists between their names and functions. This study includes in situ investigations and is conducted based on awide range of literature, statistical data, comparativemethods, and logical reasoning. This study may provide an important indication for countries that are only beginning to face a design problem concerning architecture of multi-faith spaces.

    Juan-Andrés Rodrı´guez-Lora, Daniel Navas-Carrillo, Marı´a Teresa Pérez-Cano
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(4): 701-714.

    Le Corbusier’s urbanism is routinely met with a backlash of criticism, which often overlooks the complexity of his work. There is a tendency to focus on the characteristics of his proposal for Paris in 1925 or on the ideas of CIAM’s Athens Charter. However, such affirmations ignore the conceptual and qualitative evolution of his urban proposals. In this sense, the research hypothesis is that Corbusian urban models go beyond the Plan Voisin, diffused by urban planning theories as the unique paradigm of his urban ideas.

    Through analysis and characterisation of the inner-city urban plans of Le Corbusier, this report seeks to demonstrate the existence of other models and compares them to those often showcased in the partial examination of Le Corbusier’s urbanism. The following parameters will be analysed: (1) population densities and areas for (2) buildings, (3) vehicles, and (4) pedestrians.

    The results of this research indicate the need to parameterise and analyse Le Corbusier’s cities beyond a single case to demonstrate the diversity and evolution of his urbanistic work. This process seeks to dissipate the common view that falsely extrapolates ideas of his urban planning, largely that of his first proposal, for Paris.

    Meichen Ding
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 692-700.

    Color is an important element to consider when shaping urban characteristics. However, previous studies seldom included quantitative analyses of color relationships between urban agglomerations within proximal regions and with similar cultures to distinguish and shape individual urban personalities. This study focused on Xiamen, Zhangzhou, and Quanzhou metropolitan areas, which are influenced by Minnan culture, and collected natural and cultural landscape network images that collectively represent the urban landscape in China. Color extraction, computer vision processing technologies, and clustering algorithms, such as k-means partitioning, hierarchical methods, and co-occurrence frequency, were applied using image recognition. We then established an urban color database and quantified color attributes. Finally, we conducted a comparative analysis of dominant colors and color combination associations in Xiamen, Zhangzhou, and Quanzhou metropolitan areas to explore their similarities and differences and define their characteristics. We also considered other cities of the same type for comparison.

  • Research Article
    Qirui Wan, Sergio Martín Blas
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2022, 11(1): 1-12.

    What is the estrangement of architecture? The concept has been incessantly mentioned by academics while there seems to be a lack of discussion systematically sorting out the significance, influence,and origins of estrangement asanarchitectural concept. Thiswork aims to discern the meaning of estrangement from the beginning and its process of entering the field of architecture. The first part is expected to answer the following questions: what is estrangement’s original meaning in the field of literature and its variantions? The second part determines what estrangement is in architecture and in what form estrangement is represented according to these arguments. The third part points out the difference during this translation fromliterature to architecture and demonstrates the reasonable inference thatmay actually compose the possibleway of applying the estranging technique in architecture.

    Yingxiang Niu, Xiaoyan Mi, Zhao Wang
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(4): 729-740.

    With a history spanning thousands of years, the water system of Suzhou is an indispensable carrier of urban space and civil culture. Quantificational model analysis of the waterfront in the ancient city of Suzhou has significant implications for the future design of waterfront space and the establishment of an evaluation method to determine the vitality of such space. In this study, a vitality evaluation model was first constructed using river attributes, the spatial type of waterfront areas, vision accessibility, transportation accessibility, and combined new data extracted using spatial factor analysis. Second, a vitality evaluation matrix was established using the analytic hierarchy process to simulate the vitality of waterfront spaces. Third, a hash algorithm was employed to determine the fitting degree between the vitality model of Suzhou’s waterfront space and crowd activity. The different areas between them were found and then the factor evaluation process was adjusted on this basis of analyzing the causes. Thus, this study identified the factors influencing the vitality of Suzhou’s waterfront. Furthermore, this research constructed a model for evaluating the vitality of waterfront spaces. Finally, some guidelines were presented regarding the design and implementation of waterfront spaces in urban design.

    Nelly Shafik Ramzy
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 369-393.

    Semiotics is used in the sphere of visual arts as a tool that helps reading the message included in a certain work. Gothic architecture, as an outcome of the rich cultural context of medieval tradition, where metaphysics, numbers and geometry were indispensable tools to symbolically manifest cosmological and theological concepts, is suggested as a good example for testing this approach in the field of architecture.

    In this paper, a semiotic reading for one of the most distinguished works of this era; i.e., the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, is introduced as a model for this methodology. Among many message included in the building, such as the functional or the technical messages, this is a trial to introduce a reading, i.e., an interpretation, of what could be called “a hidden spiritual message”. The paper comes to a conclusion that the Gothic cathedral, as represented in Notre Dame de Paris, might be perceived as an externalization of a standing hymn that was meant to send continuous appeals of protection to Heaven.

    Lixing Chen, Yingzi Zhang, Jiaqin Han, Xing Li
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 432-446.

    Landscape elements in residential areas can effectively improve the outdoor thermal environment, with different outcomes depending on the climate conditions. This study explores how the ground surface and shading properties affect the outdoor thermal environment in a high-altitude plateau climate where few studies have been conducted. The measurements were conducted during summer and winter in a residential area in Lhasa, Tibet. Without natural shading such as trees, there is a positive correlation between Sky-view factor (SVF) and Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) during winter and a negative correlation during summer. When SVF exceeds 0.65 in summer, it may cause human discomfort. Compared to artificial shading such as a tensioned membrane, deciduous trees are superior at improving human comfort, as they can increase PET by 10.56℃ in winter and decrease it by 9.73℃ in summer. During summer, high-reflection water-permeable bricks can reduce the PET by 1.08℃, and lawns can reduce the mean radiation temperature (Tmrt) by 1.65℃; however, the lawns may produce a microclimate with a high air temperature. The results from this paper can be used as a reference for landscape planning and design in residential areas in highaltitude cold-climate regions.

    Zao Li, Xia Sun, Shichen Zhao, Hongwei Zuo
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 317-331.

    Eye-movement analysis was adopted to evaluate the visual perception of Chinese traditional commercial blocks, and the Chenghuangmiao block in Hefei, China, was selected as a typical case. Eye-movement data from 40 respondents viewing 14 sample pictures were recorded. The spatial elements of the sample pictures, including landmarks and commercial brands, were further extracted to analyze the visual characteristics of spatial elements and the factors that affect the respondents’ perceptions of those elements. Then, the semantic differential method was used to analyze the relationship between visual preferences and psychological perceptions of spatial elements. Seventeen pairs of opposing adjectives were selected to score the intrinsic properties and visitors’ feelings of spaces. The software SPSS 22.0 was used to analyze these data. Results showed that distinctive spatial elements, such as street corridors, Ma Tau Walls, and various landmarks, were the most visually attractive. In addition, the location of a given element within a picture was an important factor affecting eye movements. On this basis, strategies for improving spatial-visual effects are proposed. The strategies include emphasizing the visual characteristics of different spatial elements, considering the overall layout of spatial elements, and creating diversified spaces based on different spatial categories.

    Iwona Wilczek
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 351-368.

    This paper aims to analyse new architectural works that were created within the ruins of castles and fortifications. The contribution addresses the question whether it is possible to indicate common features in these types of objects, by studying what changed and how it changed in the complexes of historic ruins by introducing a new layer: a new form in their space. The analysis covers eight complexes of castle ruins located in Europe, all being important elements of local historical heritage, all preserved in their historical forms as permanent ruins. Such places are characterised by high imageability, which is conducive to maintaining interest, despite political or ideological changes. The need to introduce new functions, which is connected with this interest, raises questions related to preserving the identity and authenticity of the place, while at the same time building relationships with modern architecture.

    The research concerned examples from Europe, mostly post-competition works. Research and analysis have shown that all the objects are characterised by well thought-out urban solutions and carefully selected locations of new buildings within the existing historic ruins, thereby helping maintain the structural order between the existing and the new spatial forms. Interventions within the castle ruins were carried out using modern architectural language, using modern techniques and solutions, with great attention to detail. They are characterised by the abstraction of new forms and the creative reinterpretation of existing architectural elements and material solutions of the monuments. The consciously applied contrast of forms and materials means that the historical heritage is being rediscovered, enriched with new, currently necessary functions. In all the described works, the introduction of new spatial experiences within existing objects constituted a significant value. The examples analysed show that the experience and analysis of the broadly understood historical, urban and architectural context are conducive to the creation of valuable architectural works. The characteristics of these examples may contribute to a broader debate on the dialogue between historical heritage and contemporary architecture.

    Shijie Sun, Yun Yu
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 229-239.

    This study examines the notion of placeness of city center commercial plazas within the context of globalization. Contemporary improvements of commercial public spaces aim to globalize the city image at the expense of local identity and regional characteristics. Although recognized as a major landmark that reflects the globalized image of Nanjing City, Deji Plaza cannot establish a unique sense of place and identity for the community. By adopting a humanist perspective, this study emphasizes people’s experience, perception, and emotional needs of the place as crucial dimensions for improving the relationship between people and commercial spaces. A structural equation model is used to develop a measurement system that evaluates the interaction between the different dimensions of placeness. Findings indicate that optimized locations and environmental characteristics of city center commercial plazas may enhance their image but transform them into consumption spaces for tourists rather than public places for the local community. The results of this study deepen the current understanding and assessment tools of placeness in city commercial public spaces, which are relevant to Nanjing City and similar contexts.

    Daoyuan Chen, Guoen Wang, Guojun Chen
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(4): 758-770.

    Disasters are becoming the norm in this world, which also poses challenges to architects. Many needs to build temporary buildings may occur at the same time randomly around all over the world. Constructing an efficient and economical solution is the motivation of this research. Through a comprehensive review of all past related researches and architectural practices, “convenience” and “recyclability” have been identified as two important features of temporary buildings in the post-pandemic era. In this article, we carry on a novel research of discrete architecture. Based on the design paradigm of discrete architecture, this research uses the three main components of S/U/P to develop a Lego Architecture design method by combining with the Grasshopper plug-in under the Rhino platform to write a program that automatically generates the target plan. Then, a typical design scheme for physical construction verification and structural optimization is selected to ensure landing and safety. Originating from the thinking of productization, this research attempts to package the design methods and related knowledge into a systematic solution, relying on an open construction system framework to achieve a rapid, simple and safe construction of temporary buildings after disasters.

    Nastaran Abdollahzadeh, Nimish Biloria
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 394-409.

    The quality of outdoor space is becoming increasingly important with the growing rate of urbanization. Visual, acoustic, and thermal balance degradation are all negative impacts associated with outdoor comfort in dense urban fabrics. Urban morphology thus needs assessment and optimization to ensure favorable outdoor thermal comfort (OTC). This study aims to evaluate the thermal performance of streets in residential zones of Liverpool, NSW, Australia, and tries to improve their comfort index (Physiological Equivalent Temperature) to reveal optimum urban configurations. This evaluation is done by investigating the following urban design factors affecting OTC using computational simulation techniques: street orientation, aspect ratio, building typology, and surface coverage. Our findings reveal that street canyon orientation is the most influential factor (46.42%), followed by aspect ratio (30.59%). Among the influential meteorological parameters (air temperature, wind speed, humidity and solar radiation), wind velocity had the most significant impact on the thermal comfort of the outdoor spaces in this coastal region, which typically experiences intense airflow. The results of our analysis can be utilized by multiple stakeholders, allowing them to understand and extract the most vital design factors which contextually influence the thermal comfort of outdoor spaces. Outdoor thermal comfort has a direct effect on the health and wellbeing of occupants of outdoor spaces.

    Huimin Ji, Wowo Ding
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 540-554.

    In 1748, Giambattista Nolli published a large map of Rome, which accurately depicted the form and system of public space in the city. This graphic presentation has become a powerful tool for urban space research. However, given the increasingly abundant types of contemporary urban spaces and diverse functions of public buildings, the application of the drawing principle of the Nolli map to contemporary cities remains uncertain. Taking the Laochengnan area in Nanjing as an example, this study investigates the mapping of urban public spaces based on the Nolli map method. On the basis of a field survey, the public and private spaces in the blocks are identified. By comparing the graphic information of the Nolli map and that of the Nolli-type map in terms of public, private, and green spaces, this work also reveals the similarities and differences between traditional and modern urban spaces. Urban spatial mapping methods, including the figure-ground map, street map, and Nolli-type map, are explored and compared using complementary mapping techniques. The practicality and effectiveness of each technique are also discussed. Results show that the Nolli map method is effective in mapping contemporary urban public spaces and provides an effective tool for urban designers and architects to depict and analyze urban public spaces.

    Jingyun Shen, Zhiwei Lian
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 614-624.

    Though subjective feelings affected by lighting have been studied a lot, multivariate experimental studies are lacking in this research field. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to investigate the influence of illuminance, correlated color temperature (CCT) and illuminance uniformity on satisfaction in this study. A series of subject experiments were carried out and polynomial regression models of luminous satisfaction for different activity scenarios were generated. Illuminance and CCT affected the satisfaction significantly in visual task scenarios, and the effect of them was independent with each other, which was demonstrated by the regression model (R2=0.89). The variation of luminous satisfaction in general activity scenarios cannot be fully explained by the three investigated factors. The results contributed to the knowledge of multivariate analysis of luminous environment and indicated that much could be expected referring to the application of CCRD in this field.

    Fabio Fantozzi, Carlo Bibbiani, Caterina Gargari, Roberto Rugani, Giacomo Salvadori
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 447-465.

    Green roofs represent a growing technology that is spreading increasingly and rapidly throughout the building sector. The latest national and international regulations are promoting their application for refurbishments and new buildings to increase the energy efficiency of the building stock. In recent years, vegetative coverings have been studied to demonstrate their multiple benefits, such as the reduction of the urban heat island phenomenon and the increase in the albedo of cities. On the contrary, this study aims to verify the actual benefit of applying a green roof on a sloped cover compared with installing a highly insulated tiled roof. The EnergyPlus tool has been used to perform dynamic analyses, which has allowed to understand the behavior of two different stratigraphies in accordance with weather conditions, rain, and irrigation profiles. Results have shown that the installation of a green roof cannot always be considered the best solution for reducing building energy consumption, especially if compared with a classic highly insulated clay tile roof. In terms of summer air conditioning, the maximum saving is 0.72 kWh/m2. The presence of water in the soil has also been proven a crucial factor.

    Michael J. Dawes, Michael J. Ostwald, Ju Hyun Lee
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 467-482.

    Andrea Palladio’s Renaissance villas are amongst the most famous and widely studied examples of domestic architecture ever produced. The majority of past research about Palladio’s architecture employed historical, mathematical and computational methods to analyse their complex proportional systems and rules. In contrast, this paper examines three of Palladio’s arguments about his villas plans which relate to their spatial properties and topological connections. Specifically, this paper uses a computational method e the justified plan graph (JPG) e to test two arguments about the location and significance of the primary salon on the plan, and a third about the extent to which the rooms in Palladio’s plans are, as he claims, flexible enough to contain alternative functions. Using ten of Palladio’s piano nobile (main floor) plans from I Quattro Libri Dell’Architettura as cases, this paper develops mathematical data to test three hypotheses framed around Palladio’s plans and theories.

    Natasha Chayaamor-Heil, Louis Vitalis
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 240-262.

    As a highly interdisciplinary field, architecture is being influenced by many subjects of natural and social sciences. Biology despite being apparently distant from architecture is currently a scientific field blending into design practices, which have evolved and shifted towards a new hybrid framework. In this article, we present an emerging design field of what we categorize as biomimetic architecture pioneering by six architectural offices in France. We observe the impact of scientific researches on design processes and practices through six case studies led by these offices, which can be seen through the actors who involved in various types of interdisciplinary collaborations, through the competencies of the architect himself, and through new sources of ideas coming from biological sciences and related fields. We propose to use a classification of theoretical uses in modeling practice to better understand the role that biological knowledge plays in architectural design practices. Finally, the result of this analysis shows that the use of biology taking place in a design space has external purposes, which transform it to produce engineering devices or urban schemes rather than architectural projects. It also shows that biology in architectural design induces other kinds of non-biological knowledge, is not strictly theoretical and could be obsolete or approximate. These findings lead to an epistemological discussion concerning the confusion between biological ‘knowledge’ and architectural design ‘know-how’.

    Lina Sun
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 584-597.

    This article investigates the responsibility of architectural drawing in developing the professional identity of modern architects in the late 1920s when Chinese architects started to emerge and assume the title of “architect.” Using architectural drawing as both its subject and its method, this research interrogates how a representative figure-Liu Jipiao employed the power of drawing to establish the identity of the modern Chinese architect.

    This paper argues that architectural drawing, in establishing the identity of the Chinese architect, faced the requirement to build an affinity between the architect and the artist. The entangled history of these two professions offers up Liu as the representative figure of the artistic architect. Liu’s artistic drawing fulfilled the previously mentioned requirement and earned the architects the artistic power that distinguished them from their counterparts-the engineers.

    Under the perspective of multiple modernities, the paper challenges the contemporary misreading of Liu Jipiao as an irrelevant individual intellectual and of his practice as a minor failure. Furthermore, this article invites further reflection on the modernity of Chinese architectural drawing, and shows how such drawing made more attempts to convey subjectivity rather than to transmit modern technique per se.

    Aws M. Salman, Younis M. Saleem
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(4): 838-856.

    Todays, most Iraqi cities suffer from extremely hot-dry climate for long periods throughout the year. However, most urban patterns that exist inside these cities are not suitable for this harsh conditions and lead to an increase in the value of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) index. Consequently, this will increase outdoor human thermal discomfort as well as energy consumption and air pollution in cities. This study attempts to evaluate the effect of UHI mitigation strategies on outdoor human thermal comfort in three different common types of urban patterns in the biggest and most populated city in Iraq, Baghdad. Three different mitigation strategies are used here- vegetation, cool materials, and urban geometry- to build 18 different scenarios. Three-dimensional numerical software ENVI-met 4.2 is utilised to analyse and assess the studied parameters. The input data for simulations process are based on two meteorological stations in Baghdad: Iraqi Meteorological Organization & Seismology, and Iraqi Agrometeorological Network. All measurements are taken in a pedestrian walkway. The results of different scenarios are compared based on their effect on human thermal comfort. Outdoor thermal comfort is assessed according to Predicted Mean Vote index, as mentioned in ISO 7730 standard. This study provides a better understanding of the role of UHI mitigation strategies on human thermal comfort in the outdoor spaces of Baghdad’s residential neighbourhoods. This can help generate guidelines of urban design and planning practices for better thermal performance in hot and dry cities.

    Juan Serra, Banu Manav, Yacine Gouaich
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 502-515.

    Color preference for the interior of a bedroom of Le Corbusier’s Swiss Pavilion was studied using 1931 Salubra color keyboards in a cross-cultural analysis. Results indicate that students from architecture and interior design slightly dislike or are indifferent to Le Corbusier color combinations and prefer pale and low saturated colors for interior architecture. The least preferred colors belong to green and brown hues. Scarce significant gender differences are found that follow a stereotyped tendency, with females preferring pinks, light blues and light greens, while males vivid oranges and Vermilions. Near Easterners are significantly more likely to green colors, while Western Europeans to dark greys. These data indicate that not only hue, but also value and saturation are important color features to inform preference for interior architecture.

  • Research Article
    Emel Birer, Pınar Çalışır Adem
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2022, 11(1): 13-30.

    The experience, perception, awareness, and appreciation of the environment created by public spaces are important elements of urban design. In this context, a strong link exists between perception, public spaces, and historical cities. Amasya is one of the multilayered historical cities in Anatolia. Amasya’s holistic urban texture, close relationship with the river, and public spaces are associated with both the Iris River and the historical texture. This pilot study examines the Yalıboyu Promenade, a contemporary open public space designed along the river and across the historical texture in Amasya in Turkey to reveal how it affects people’s perception of the historical environment. The study uses the mixed method approach, which includes qualitative and quantitative data. Following the theoretical discussion, the study investigates the context of the promenade. The survey results revealed how the first-time visitors had perceived the historical texture of the promenade based on Rapoport’s method of using environmental signs. The results were interpreted by jointly evaluating qualitative and survey data. Furthermore, although some aspects need improvement, the promenade solidifies the perception of the historical environment. Overall, when the public space is integrated with the historical environment and public life, it offers multidimensional contributions that cannot be ignored. Therefore, examining the promenade from perceptual aspects and offering a design approach to promote integration with the historical environment may help to establish a precedent case for future initiatives.

    Seyed Morteza Hosseini, Masi Mohammadi, Torsten Schröder, Olivia Guerra-Santin
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(4): 821-837.

    The architectural form of the façade determines its identity as well as interactions with micro-climate forces of the ambient environment, such as solar radiation. The dynamic nature of daylight and occupants’ positions can cause some issues such as heat gains and visual discomfort, which need to be controlled in real-time operation. Improving daylight performance and preventing visual discomfort for multiple occupants simultaneously is challenging. However, integrating the biomimicry principles of morphological adaptation with dynamic, complex fenestration, and human-in-loop systems can lead us to find an optimal solution. This research builds on relevant literature study, biomimicry morphological approaches, and parametric simulations, to develop a bio-inspired interactive kinetic façade for improving multiple occupants’ visual comfort simultaneously, inspired by plant’s stomata movement and behavior principles. Learning from the transitory stage and hunting new position of stomata’s patchy patterns, leads us to identify the dynamic transitory-sensitive area of attraction point on the façade that is triggered by the dynamic sun-timing position and multiple occupants. The annual climate-based metrics and luminance-based metric simulation results of 810 bioinspired interactive kinetic façade alternatives prove that the elastic-deformable-complexkinetic form triggered by the dynamic transitory-sensitive area can improve the visual comfort of multiple occupants simultaneously. In particular, the bio-inspired interactive kinetic façade with grid division 8x1 displays extraordinary daylight performance for south direction that prevents visual discomfort by keeping cases in the imperceptible range while providing an adequate average Spatial Daylight Autonomy of 60.5%, Useful Daylight illuminance of 90.47%, and Exceed Useful Daylight illuminance of 2.94%.

    Shaofei Niu, Ang Hu, Zhongwei Shen, Ying Huang, Yanchuan Mou
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 652-668.

    Green transit-oriented development (TOD) is an evolution of the TOD theory, influenced by sustainable development and green urbanism. This advancement expands the environmental and ecological dimensions of conventional TOD. However, relevant research has only just started, particularly in combination with high-density cities in Asia. This study measures the built environment of Green TOD and identifies the key factors and characteristics of the Green TOD built environment. An evaluation method for the Green TOD built environment is developed on the basis of the 5D (density, diversity, design, destination, and distance) built environment framework and combined with green urbanism theories. Data from 23 rail station areas in Singapore were collected and analyzed using factor and cluster analysis. Five factors, namely, neighborhood spatial form factor, facility completeness factor, open space factor, high-density mixed land-use factor, and walking amenity factor, are extracted. Twentythree station areas are classified into five clusters. The characteristics and optimization strategies of each cluster are analyzed on the basis of the statistical and graphical analyses. This research displays the characteristics and typology of the Green TOD built environment in an empirical way and offers a foundation for further research in diverse urban contexts.

    Chenyi Cai, Biao Li
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(2): 304-316.

    The use of architectural morphological analysis and generative design is an important strategy to interpret current designs and to propose novel ones. Conventional morphological features are defined based on qualitative descriptions or manually selected indicators, which include subjective bias, thus limiting generalizability. The lack of public architectural morphological datasets also leads to setbacks in data-driven morphological analysis. This study proposed a new method for generating topology-based synthetic data via a rule-based system and for encoding morphological information to promote morphological classification via deep learning. A deep convolution network, LeNet, which was modified in the output layer, was trained with synthetic data, including five spatial prototypes (central, linear, radial, cluster, and grid). The performance of the proposed method was validated on 40 practical architectural layouts. Compared to the ground truth, the proposed method provided an encouraging accuracy of 97.5% (39/40). Interestingly, the most possible mistakes of the LeNet were also understandable according to the architect’s intuitive perception. The proposed method considered the statistical and overall characteristics of the training samples. This work demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the deep learning network trained with synthetic architectural patterns for morphological classification in practical architectural layouts. The findings of this work could serve as a basis for further morpho-topology studies and other social, building energy, and building structure studies related to spatial morphology.

    Zifeng Guo, Biao Li, Ludger Hovestadt
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(4): 715-728.

    Typical traffic modeling approaches, such as network-based methods and simulation models, have been shown inadequate for urban-scale studies due to the fidelity issue of models. As a go-around, data-driven models have received increasing attention recently. However, most data-driven methods have been restricted by their data source and cannot be scaled up to manage urban- and regional-scale studies. Regarding this issue, this research proposes a pipeline that collects traffic data from online map vendors to bypass data limitations for large-scale studies. The study consists of two experiments: 1) recognizing the dominant traffic patterns of cities and 2) site-specific predictions of typical traffic or the most probable locations of patterns of interests. The experiments were conducted on 32 Swiss cities using traffic data that were collected for a two-month period. The results show that dominant patterns can be extracted from the temporal traffic data, and similar patterns exist not only in various parts of a city but also in different cities. Moreover, the results reveal that a country-level lockdown decreased traffic congestions in regional highways but increased those connections near the city centers and the country borders.

    Matti Lakkala, Janne Pihlajaniemi
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(4): 741-757.

    Due to the global increase in wood construction, it is crucial for architects to understand wood. In Finland, log building, a special subset of industrially manufactured massive timber construction materials is experiencing a renaissance. Cultural aspects combined with newer technical developments make log a complex material from the viewpoint of architectonic expression. To inform practicing architects, the aim of this study is to explore how the tectonics of logs contribute to the architectonic quality of log architecture. Semistructured interviews among architects of twelve recently published log buildings are conducted. The results describe how architectonic quality is perceived among participants, and features of logs related to tectonics that they consider to be of importance in terms of architectonic quality. These features include the statics of log construction and log’s nature as a simultaneously insulating, load-bearing and visual material. Differences between industrial and hand-hewn logs, as well as other architectural aspects of using logs in contemporary architecture are discussed. Especially the “non-settling” log was perceived to have manifold implications for the architectonic possibilities of log architecture. The results are of practical importance to designing architects and the log industry. Theoretical implications include tangible information on architectonic quality and tectonics of log building.

    Maria Philokyprou, Aimilios Michael, Eleni Malaktou
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 483-501.

    Semi-open spaces-largely incorporated in vernacular dwellings in Cyprus during the 19th and 20th centuries-formed diachronically significant socio-cultural, functional and environmental features of the vernacular architecture of the area. The climate of the Eastern Mediterranean region, i.e., hot summers and mild winters, encouraged the use of open weather protected spaces, thus leading to the widespread incorporation of such spaces in the vernacular architecture of the region. This paper focuses on the interconnections between architectural forms and human comfort, convenience or pleasure in relation to the semiopen spaces found in the vernacular architecture of Cyprus-an island in the Eastern Mediterranean region. For the purpose of this research, characteristic traditional settlements found in the coastal, lowland and mountainous areas-which represent three different climatic regions and topographies of the island-were selected for an in-depth investigation. The findings confirm a high frequency of semi-open spaces, as well as the existence of a remarkable richness of typologies. Although semi-open spaces constitute a fundamental part of the structure of these vernacular dwellings in all climatic regions examined, they dominate in the lowland regions due to the particularly hot climate, as well as the specific activities of the inhabitants of these areas. The prevailing architectural forms and constructions of these spaces in each climatic region under investigation was found to be closely adapted to the local resources, terrain and climate, while also being related to the social, household and agricultural needs of the inhabitants, thus underlining their sustainable and locus-specific conception. Research findings can contribute towards critically re-thinking semi-open spaces and their inherent value in rehabilitation projects, as well as in contemporary residential architecture.

    Erica Hörteborn, Malgorzata A. Zboinska
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 669-691.

    This study explores the design possibilities with knitted architectural textiles subjected to wind. The purpose is to investigate how such textiles could be applied to alter the usual static expression of exterior architectural and urban elements, such as facades and windbreaks. The design investigations were made on a manual knitting machine and on a CNC (computer numerically controlled) flat knitting machine. Four knitting techniques- tuck stitch, hanging stitches, false lace, and drop stitch- were explored based on their ability to create a three-dimensional effect on the surface level as well as on an architectural scale. Physical textile samples produced using those four techniques were subjected to controlled action of airflow. Digital experiments were also conducted, to probe the possibilities of digitally simulating textile behaviours in wind. The results indicate that especially the drop stitch technique exhibits interesting potentials. The variations in the drop stitch pattern generate both an aesthetic effect of volumetric expression of the textile architectural surface and seem beneficial in terms of wind speed reduction. Thus, these types of knitted textiles could be applied to design architecture that are efficient in terms of improving the aesthetic user experience and comfort in windy urban areas.

    Pan Liao, Ning Gu, Rongrong Yu, Chris Brisbin
    Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2021, 10(3): 598-613.

    This study explores the spatial pattern of Historic Chinese Towns and Cities (HCTC) by using a syntactic approach. The HCTC is an important element of the built environment and exhibits a variety of unique spatial characteristics. Although previous research has been focused on qualitative analysis, a quantitative approach to exploring this issue is scarce, leading to insufficient understanding of the spatial characteristics of HCTC. This study presents a quantitative approach to analyzing the spatial pattern of HCTC by utilizing the space syntax method. Four well-preserved historic towns were selected as case studies, each representing a typical spatial type of historic town in China. A series of mathematical measures from space syntax were used to explore the spatial characteristics of HCTC, facilitating expanded interpretation of traditional Chinese ideologies. Results contribute to a more critical understanding of the spatial pattern of HCTC.