Guidelines for authors

Higher Education Press

Frontiers in Energy


Jun 01, 2023

1. General information

Frontiers in Energy is an international peer-reviewed academic journal supervised by the Ministry of Education of China, administered by Higher Education Press of China, Chinese Academy of Engineering and Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and jointly published by Higher Education Press of China and Springer on a bimonthly basis in English. Online versions are available through both and 


Specific item


Citations & references

Numerical references style. Journal names should be spelled out in full. References cited in the text should be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals. The numerals should be in bracket. See examples on Page 10. More than 30 references should be cited in the article, in which references published in recent two years must occupy higher than 20%. Non-English References must be less than 3.

Running title

Obligatory. A short version of the paper title (up to 80 characters.


150-250 words


5 bullet. Each bullet85 characters including space.


3-line style. See examples on Page 7.


"mg/L" style. “ppb” or “ppm” is not acceptable.

Graphical abstract

Obligatory for most types of papers.


Citations should be excluded.


Each section and sub-section; each equation.


No map is encouraged considering the time and expense for an audit according to the publication laws and rules.

Manuscript size

40 MB in Word format and single column for plagiarism check.

2. Duplicate/previous publication or submission

Manuscripts submitted to this journal must not be under simultaneous consideration by any other publisher and should not have been published elsewhere in substantially similar form. No part of a paper which has been published by Frontiers in Energy may be reproduced or published elsewhere without the written permission of the publisher.

2.1 Ethical responsibilities of authors

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.   


Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal and ultimately the entire scientific endeavor. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which includes:

· The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.

· The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).

· A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g.  “Salami-publishing”).

· No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions.

· No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the authors own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.

Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.

· Consent to submit has been received from all co-authors and responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out before the work is submitted.

· Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.

In addition:

· Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.

· Requests to add or delete authors at revision stage or after publication is a serious matter, and may be considered only after receipt of written approval from all authors and detailed explanation about the role/deletion of the new/deleted author. The decision on accepting the change rests with the Editor-in-Chief of the journal.

· Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc.

If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines.  If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been proven, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:

- If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.

- If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note.

- The author’s institution may be informed.

2.2 Disclosure of potential conflict of interests

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:

· Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)

· Honoraria for speaking at symposia

· Financial support for attending symposia

· Financial support for educational programs

· Employment or consultation

· Support from a project sponsor

· Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships

· Multiple affiliations

· Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest

· Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)

· Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work

In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.


The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors.  Examples of forms can be found here (link to various forms TO BE INCLUDED).

The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).


See below examples of disclosures:

Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).


Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.


If no conflict exists, the authors should state:

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


3. Article Categories

The following categories of papers can be submitted to the journal:

RESEARCH article is a contribution describing original research, including theoretical exposition, extensive data and in-depth critical evaluation, and is peer reviewed. Research articles must highlight the significance, originality, and rigor of the research. The total length of a manuscript excluding figures, tables and references must not be less than ~ 5000 words. A length of 6000 to 8000 words is appropriate.

REVIEW should provide a broad and balanced overview of a research field. Authors should write in a style that ensures the article is accessible to the diverse readership of Frontiers in Energy. When writing, authors must include some insight into how and where the field is progressing, and key challenges to be overcome in the future.

MINI-REVIEW provides an opportunity to summarize existing knowledge of selected energy areas, with special emphasis on current topics where rapid and significant advances are occurring. Mini-Reviews should be concise and not too wide-ranging.

PERSPECTIVE (up to ~3000 words) mainly focuses on the outlooks based on in-depth review of the hot issues in energy science, technology, engineering, and policy making. They should highlight recent exciting research and provide new insights. It also aims to promote interdisciplinary understanding in the energy field. Perspective may be peer-reviewed at the editors’ discretion.


NEWS & HIGHLIGHTS inform readers about the latest advances in energy research, as reported in recently published papers or at scientific meetings. They may focus on papers of exceptional significance that are published elsewhere. Unsolicited contributions will not normally be considered, although prospective authors are welcome to make proposals. News & Highlights may be peer-reviewed at the editors’ discretion


VIEWPOINTS mainly focus on the viewpoints and comments on a specific research topic, provide deep insight into a research problem, or express scientific analysis/views on an energy topic. Viewpoints may be peer-reviewed at the editors’ discretion.


COMMENTS can focus on policy, science and society or other issues related to energy. Comment articles should be topical, readable, provocative and introduce new concepts/points of view, providing a personal perspective on a matter of public or scientific importance. The main criteria are that they should be of immediate interest to a broad readership and should be written in an accessible, non-technical style. COMMENTS may be peer-reviewed at the editors’ discretion.


4. Manuscript preparation and submission requirements

4.1 Manuscript submission 

Authors are encouraged to submit their papers electronically via the online submission system ( The website guides authors stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. Note that original source files, not PDF files, are required. Once the submission files are uploaded, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence, including the editor's decision and request for revisions, will be by e-mail. After reviewing process, the manuscript will be finally judged by one of the editors who have the right to accept or reject a paper.


4.2 Submission requirements

a) Cover letter

A covering letter must accompany each submission indicating the name, address, and telephone number of the author to whom all correspondence is to be addressed. An affiliation must be supplied for each author. Authors are also asked to provide the names and contact information for four potential referees in their cover letter. However, the journal is not obliged to use the suggested reviewers. Final selection of reviewers will be determined by the editors.

b) Research highlights

Research highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights should be submitted as a separate file in the ScholarOne Submission System. Specifications: up to 5 bullet points can be included; the length 7 of one bullet point should not exceed 85 characters (including spaces); only the core results of the manuscript should be covered.


c) Manuscript for research articles


Manuscripts should be in a Word format. The following components are required for a complete manuscript: Title, Author(s), Author affiliation(s), Abstract, Keywords, Nomenclature (when needed), Main text (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions), References, Acknowledgements, Appendices, Figure, Graphical abstract, Tables.


Include page numbers on the document, beginning with the title page as number 1. It will be preferred if line numbers are included as well. There is no formal limit for the length of a paper, but the editors may recommend condensation when appropriate.

Please use standard 10- or 12-point Times New Roman fonts.


Title.  The title of the paper should be explicit, descriptive and as brief as possible – no more than 20 words in length.

Running title.  A short version of the paper title (up to 80 characters including space).

Author names, (academic degrees) and affiliations.

Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. The telephone and mobile numbers (with country and area code) in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address of the corresponding author should be given.


Jinzhi FENG, Jun LI, R. M. Goodall

Department name, University name, City name postal code, Country name


Corresponding author. The e-mail address of the corresponding author should be given on the first page of the manuscript. In the case of multiple authors, one should be designated as the corresponding author.

Abstract.  A short abstract of up to 300 words written in one paragraph, clearly indicating the object and scope of the paper as well as the results achieved, should appear on the first page.

Keywords.  Up to 6 words separated by commas.

Headings and subheadings.  Headings and subheadings should be used throughout the text to divide the subject matter into its important, logical parts. Typical headings include: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, Appendixes and References.

Graphic Abstract

A graphical abstract is an image that summarizes the main findings of a paper. It adds a rich, visual component to the start of a paper, helping readers to quickly appreciate and understand the central message. 

Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 6 cm × 11cm (h × w) using a minimum resolution of 300 dpi, using Times New Roman font with a size of 12–16 points, preferred file types: TIFF, PDF or MS Office files. Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal.


Highlights are bullet points that convey the core findings of your paper. You may include up to four highlights. The length of each highlight cannot exceed 85 characters (including spaces).



Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and layout of the journal. Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table.

If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide them over two or more tables.

Table 1  Table Title





blank control












Abbreviations. PLA:      ; HA-PLA: .

Place units at the heads of the columns. Abbreviations that are used only in a table should be defined in the footnotes to that table.

Rows and columns should always be used to correlate two variables. Submitted single-spaced and in the word processing software used. Do not embed tables as graphic files, document objects, or pictures.

Submitted as three-line tables, that is, there are three horizontal lines: one under the legend, one under the column heads, and one below the body. Vertical lines are generally not used.

Label each table at the top with a Roman numeral followed by the table title. Insert explanatory material and footnotes below the table. Designate footnotes using lowercase superscript letters (a, b, c) reading horizontally across the table.

Unless needed, all the words within the tables should be in lowercases.

Must be sequentially numbered and called out in the text as, e.g. Table 1.



Figures should be practically self-explanatory. Readers should be able to understand them at a glance. Dimensional drawings and diagrams should include only the essential details and as little lettering as possible. They should present more of a picture than a working drawing. 

Caption: Ensure that each figure has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself). Keep text in the figures themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used for the first time in the manuscript.

Size: should be drawn in the size of the virtually appear.

Numbering and title: Number all figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations) in the order of their citation in the text and cited as, e.g., Fig. 1. Include a title for each figure (a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words). Use (a); (b); (c)… to give titles for subfigures if there are any.

Figure quality: Should be sharp, noise-free, and of good contrast. All lettering should be large enough to permit legible reduction. 

Maps: It is strongly recommended that you do not use maps. Any maps drawn without an authorized basis have to be submitted with the certificate from the Surveying and Mapping management, which is undoubtedly time-consuming and troublesome.

Please obtain the reprint permission from the original publisher if the figures from other literature are to be used. 

Figure requirements

Figure category













Formulae and equations.

It is extremely important that all mathematical symbols and letters used are identified and listed and that the required style of appearance of such symbols is clearly indicated, e.g., bold face, italics, script, outline, etc. In principle, variables (including variables in subscripts and superscripts) are to be presented in italics. Please submit equations as editable text and not as images.


Subscripts and superscripts should be set off clearly. Identify in the margin any symbols that might be confused with similar symbols.

The words Equation or Equations should appear in full at the beginning of sentences but be abbreviated to Eq. or Eqs. elsewhere.

A nomenclature can be included (with the use of = signs) after the abstract if there is a significant number of symbols in the paper.

Equations should be located separately from other lines if they are long or complicated.



Abbreviations should be used sparingly and consistently. When the title is too long and abbreviation is to be used, only the most common abbreviations such as ORC and CCHP can be used. The complete term should be given separately when they first appear in the abstract and the main text.



Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it will be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.

If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible.


Units of measure 

Laboratory values are expressed using conventional units of measure, with relevant Système International (SI) conversion factors expressed secondarily (in parentheses) only at first mention. In tables and figures, a conversion factor to SI should be presented in the footnote or legend. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume.



The Acknowledgements section is the general term for the list of sponsor and financial support, contributions, credits, and other information included at the end of the text of a manuscript but before the references. Conflicts of interest and financial disclosures must be listed in this section. Authors should obtain written permission to include the names of individuals in the Acknowledgements section.


Appendixes (if needed)

Appendix A

  A1, A2, A3

Appendix B

Appendix C


d) Manuscript for review articles


Reviews give a general overview of a particular field, providing the reader with an

appreciation of the importance of the work, historical context, a summary of recent

developments, and a starting point in the specialist literature. Manuscripts should be

divided into appropriate sections, with an extensive list of references. In addition to undergoing the same rigorous level of technical peer-review as Research papers, Review articles will be critiqued based on the general impact of the field being reviewed, the relevance of the field to experimental mechanics, preexisting reviews of the field, and acknowledgement of the contributing author as a dominant figure in the field. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that authors interested in submitting a Review article correspond with the Editor prior to submission. General formatting text, illustrations, and references are the same as outlined for research papers.


e) Citations and References

In-text citations must agree with the references in either numbering or order. The references should be presented completely and without mistakes, and should be the original publication. References cited in the text should be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals. The numerals should be in bracket. In the reference section, references should be listed in the same order as cited in the text. Grouped citations should be separated by comma (two or non-consecutive references) or connected by hyphen (no less than three consecutive references): e.g., [1, 2], [1-5], or [1-3, 5]. Journal names should be given in full.

Some examples to follow are provide below.

1. Nicholson J K, Connelly J, Lindon J C, Holmes E. Metabonomics: a platform for studying drug toxicity and gene function. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2002, 1(2): 153–161 (for journal papers)

2. Ray D. Natural Systems for Water Pollution Control. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982 (for monographs)

3. Schlessinger D, Schaechter M. Bacterial toxins. In: Schaechter M, Medoff G, Eisenstein BI, eds. Mechanisms of Microbial Disease. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1993, 162175 (for a chapter in a book)

4. Liu C X. Study on the Measures for Improving Constructed Wetlands’ Performance in Treating Domestic Wastewater. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Beijing: Tsinghua University, 2003 (in Chinese) (for dissertations)

5. Cui F Y, Ren G. Pilot study of process of bathing wastewater treatment for reuse. In: Proceedings of the International Water Association Conference 2005, Xi’an. Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press, 2005, 8792 (for proceedings)

6. Christoph M. Phobos - a tandem repeat search tool for complete genomes.

2014-3-25, available at website of ruhr-uni-bochum (for webpage)

7. Fei J, Yang J, Zhou H, Tang M, Lu W, Yan A, Hou Y, Zhang S. A novel method

for identifying shahtoosh. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2014.

doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12374 (for online article)

8. Phillips N A. The Nested Grid Model. NOAA Technical Report NWS22. 1979 (for Technical Report)

9. Plank C J, Posinski E J. US Patent, 4 081 490, 1978-02-15 (for patent)

10. Wang D L, Zhu J, Li Z K. User Manual for QTKMapper Version 1.6, 1999 (for User Manual)

11. Hemodynamics III: The ups and downs of hemodynamics. Version 2.2. Orlando (FL): Computerized Educational Systems. 1993 (for software)

12. Anderson S C, Poulsen K B. Anderson’s Electronic Atlas of Hematology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Wilkins, 2002 (for electronic material)

5. About the Special Issues

A Special Issue (SI) is a collection of articles focusing on a theme or themes relevant to the journal’s aims and scope and is often produced by one or more guest editors (GEs) with the assistance of the journal’s Editor.

Typically, an SI normally consists of 520 articles which can include review articlesmini-review articles, original research papers, perspectives, viewpoints and comments, etc. There is no restriction on the number of papers to be included in the SI or on the word limitation/page budget as long as the papers are of high quality. If the accepted papers are fewer than 124 printed journal pages, we would still publish them together, but as a Special Column within a regular issue rather than as a standalone SI. Submitted papers must adhere to the Editorial style of FIE. All papers must be submitted through the FIE online submission system.

The following peer-review process should be adhered to:

· The same review processes and criteria of quality and originality apply to articles in SI as to regular issue articles.

· All papers accepted for publication (except Editorials) should be peer reviewed by at least three independent referees.

· Paper submitted by a GE must be edited by another GE, or if that is not feasible, by another independent party, e.g., the EiC or another handling Editor on the journal.

· During the review process, the EiC may request additional reviews for particular papers, further revisions, and have the right, in consultation with the GEs, to reject papers if they do not fulfil standards of scholarly excellence.

· Final decisions on the manuscripts will be made by the EiC, in consultation with the GE.

To submit an SI proposal, or for any enquiry related to SI, please refer to Guidelines for Guest Editors.

6. Notification

The corresponding author will be notified by the editors of the acceptance of article and invited to supply an electronic version of the accepted text, if this is not already available.


7. Copyright transfer

No article can be published unless accompanied by a signed Copyright Transfer Statement, which ensures a transfer of copyright from author to publisher. A copy of the Copyright Transfer Statement to be used will be provided with the letter of acceptance of the manuscript. Authors are asked to scan and return by email or fax the signed statement to the editorial office of Frontiers in Energy at the Higher Education Press.

8. Open Choice

FIE is a hybrid journal. Open Choice allows you to publish open access in this journal, making your research more visible and accessible immediately on publication.


Article processing charges (APCs) vary by journal – view the full list.


Copyright and license term – CC BY


Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains

with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article

under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

9. Proofing

Proofs will be sent to the author and should be returned within 72 hours of receipt. Authors should clarify any questions of the proof in a query file. No new materials shall be inserted at the time of proofreading. Please note that authors are urged to check their proofs carefully before return one all-inclusive e-mail or fax, since subsequent additional corrections will not be possible.

10. Research data policy

The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.

 · List of Repositories

 ·Research Data Policy

 General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.

 Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.

 · DataCite

 Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at

This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.


11. Author Enquiries

For submission inquiries, tracking articles and any information please contact the Frontiers in Energy office in Shanghai Jiao Tong University or Higher Education Press. All correspondence for the journal should be sent to the following address. Please include the manuscript dispatch number in all correspondences.


Managing Editors:

Ruiqin LIU

Editorial Office of Frontiers in Energy

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Tel: 86-21-62933795

Fax: 86-21-62933373


Xiaoyan QIAO

Academic Journal Publishing Division

Higher Education Press 

No. 4 Huixindongjie, Beijing 100029, China

Tel: 86-10-58556482

Fax: 86-10-58556034


12.  Author Benefits

The articles enjoy a fast peer-review and production workflow and will be published more quickly with the online first publishing on the basis of individual articles. The submitted manuscripts will get polished in language by highly qualified editors before typeset.


Pubdate: 2014-01-18    Viewed: 4850