Activereactive power scheduling of integrated electricitygas network with multimicrogrids
Tao JIANG, Xinru DONG, Rufeng ZHANG, Xue LI, Houhe CHEN, Guoqing LI
Activereactive power scheduling of integrated electricitygas network with multimicrogrids
Advances in natural gasfired technologies have deepened the coupling between electricity and gas networks, promoting the development of the integrated electricitygas network (IEGN) and strengthening the interaction between the activereactive power flow in the power distribution network (PDN) and the natural gas flow in the gas distribution network (GDN). This paper proposes a dayahead activereactive power scheduling model for the IEGN with multimicrogrids (MMGs) to minimize the total operating cost. Through the tight coupling relationship between the subsystems of the IEGN, the potentialities of the IEGN with MMGs toward multienergy cooperative interaction is optimized. Important component models are elaborated in the PDN, GDN, and coupled MMGs. Besides, motivated by the nonnegligible impact of the reactive power, optimal inverter dispatch (OID) is considered to optimize the active and reactive power capabilities of the inverters of distributed generators. Further, a secondorder cone (SOC) relaxation technology is utilized to transform the proposed activereactive power scheduling model into a convex optimization problem that the commercial solver can directly solve. A test system consisting of an IEEE33 test system and a 7node natural gas network is adopted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheduling method. The results show that the proposed scheduling method can effectively reduce the power losses of the PDN in the IEGN by 9.86%, increase the flexibility of the joint operation of the subsystems of the IEGN, reduce the total operation costs by $32.20, and effectively enhance the operation economy of the IEGN.
combined cooling / heating / and power (CCHP) / integrated energy systems (IES) / natural gas / power distribution system / gas distribution system
[1] 
Zhu M, Xu C, Dong S.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[2] 
Amanpour S, Huck D, Kuprat M.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[3] 
Nasiri N, Zeynali S, Najafi Ravadanegh S.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[4] 
AbomazidA MElTaweelN AFaragH E Z. Energy management system for minimizing hydrogen production cost using integrated battery energy storage and photovoltaic systems. In: 2021 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), Washington, D.C., USA, 2021

[5] 
Koirala B, Hers S, MoralesEspaña G.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[6] 
Wang H, Hou K, Zhao J B.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[7] 
Liu H Z, Shen X W, Guo Q L.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[8] 
Chen S, Conejo A J, Sioshansi R.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[9] 
Ahmad F, Iqbal A, Ashraf I.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[10] 
Clegg S, Mancarella P. Integrated electrical and gas network flexibility assessment in lowcarbon multienergy systems. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2016, 7(2): 718–731
CrossRef
Google scholar

[11] 
Liu M X, Shi Y, Fang F. A new operation strategy for CCHP systems with hybrid chillers. Applied Energy, 2012, 95: 164–173
CrossRef
Google scholar

[12] 
Ahmadi S E, Sadeghi D, Marzband M.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[13] 
Nasiri N, Zeynali S, Ravadanegh S N.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[14] 
KazemiRazi S M, Askarian Abyaneh H, Nafisi H.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[15] 
Yang L, Xu Y, Zhou J.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[16] 
Yang L, Xu Y, Sun H.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[17] 
Baherifard M A, Kazemzadeh R, Yazdankhah A S.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[18] 
Sadeghi D, Amiri N, Marzband M.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[19] 
Cao Z, Wang J, Zhao Q.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[20] 
Gao H, Li Z. A benders decomposition based algorithm for steadystate dispatch problem in an integrated electricitygas system. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2021, 36(4): 3817–3820
CrossRef
Google scholar

[21] 
Chen S, Wei Z, Sun G.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[22] 
Zhang Y, Ren Z. Optimal reactive power dispatch considering costs of adjusting the control devices. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2005, 20(3): 1349–1356
CrossRef
Google scholar

[23] 
ElSamahy I, Bhattacharya K, Canizares C.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[24] 
Li Z, Yu J, Wu Q H. Approximate linear power flow using logarithmic transform of voltage magnitudes with reactive power and transmission loss consideration. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2018, 33(4): 4593–4603
CrossRef
Google scholar

[25] 
Yu J, Dai W, Li W.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[26] 
LiWLiangZMaC,

[27] 
MillerN WZrebiecR SHuntG,

[28] 
Walker L H. 10MW GTO converter for battery peaking service. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 1990, 26(1): 63–72
CrossRef
Google scholar

[29] 
Gabash A, Li P. Activereactive optimal power flow in distribution networks with embedded generation and battery storage. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2012, 27(4): 2026–2035
CrossRef
Google scholar

[30] 
YangKGongYZhangP,

[31] 
WangYWangTZhouK P,

[32] 
Zhang X, Sugishita H, Ni W.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[33] 
Chen H H, Wang D, Zhang R F.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[34] 
Wang C, Hong B, Guo L.

[35] 
Li G Q, Yan K F, Zhang R F.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[36] 
Farivar M, Low S H. Branch flow model: relaxations and convexification—parts I. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2013, 28(3): 2554–2564
CrossRef
Google scholar

[37] 
Chen H H, Fu L B, Bai L Q.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[38] 
Bai L, Wang J, Wang C.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[39] 
Chen H H, Li H Y, Lin C.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[40] 
Chen Z, Zhang Y, Ji T.
CrossRef
Google scholar

[41] 
Teodor O. Coordination of battery energy storage and powertogas in distribution systems. Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, 2017, 2(1): 1–8
CrossRef
Google scholar

Acronyms  
AROPF  Activereactive optimal power flow 
AC  Absorption chillers 
ACOPF  Alternating current optimal power flow 
CCHP  Combined cooling, heating, and power 
DG  Distributed generators 
DPV  Distributed photovoltaic 
EC  Electric chillers 
GB  Gas boilers 
GDN  Gas distribution network 
GT  Gas turbines 
HSS  Heat storage systems 
IEGN  Integrated electricitygas network 
MMG  Multimicrogrids 
OID  Optimal inverter dispatch 
PCS  Power conditioning systems 
PDN  Power distribution network 
P2G  Power to gas 
SOC  Secondorder cone 
WHB  Waste heat boilers 
Indices  
i/j  Index of nodes in the PDN 
ij  Index of branches in the PDN 
I/J  Set of the beginning/ending nodes of the branches in the PDN 
m  Index of the microgrids 
M  Set of the nodes of the PDN where the microgrids are located 
t  Index of time slots 
uv  Index of branches in the GDN 
u/v  Index of nodes in the GDN 
U/V  Set of the beginning/ending nodes of the pipelines in the GDN 
Parameters  
${B}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{c}}/{B}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{d}}$  Charging/discharging power of the power storage system of node i of the PDN at the tth hour 
C_{uv}  Weymouth equation coefficient 
${C}_{t}^{\mathrm{P}}/{C}_{t}^{\mathrm{Q}}$  Active/reactive power price of the utility grid at the tth hour 
${C}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{V}}$  Operation cost of the distributed photovoltaic of node i in the distribution network, which is assumed to be a constant 
COP_{AC}  Coefficient of performance of the absorption chiller in the mth microgrid 
COP_{EC}  Performance coefficient of the electrical chiller in the mth microgrid 
$c{m}_{m}^{\mathrm{H}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Coefficient of the cost function of the heat storage system in the mth microgrid 
$c{m}_{m}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{C}}/c{m}_{m}^{\mathrm{A}\mathrm{C}}$  Coefficient of the cost function of the electrical chiller/absorption chiller in the mth microgrid 
$c{m}_{m}^{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{H}\mathrm{B}}$  Coefficient of the cost function of the waste heat boiler in the mth microgrid 
${C}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{g}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}$  Purchased gas cost of the mth microgrids at the tth hour 
${C}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{V}}$  Operation cost of the distributed photovoltaic of node i in the distribution network 
${C}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Operation cost of the ESS of node i in the distribution network 
${E}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Amount of electricity stored in the energy storage system of node i of the PDN at the tth hour 
${H}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{B}}$  Heating power production of the gas boiler of the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${H}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{A}\mathrm{C}}$  Heating power absorption of the absorption chiller of the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${H}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{c}}/{H}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{d}}$  Charging/discharging power of the heat storage system in the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${H}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{D}}/{C}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{D}}$  Heating and cooling power loads of the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${H}_{m,min}^{\mathrm{A}\mathrm{C}}/{H}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{A}\mathrm{C}}$  Minimum/maximum heating power consumption of the absorption chiller in the mth microgrid 
${H}_{m,min}^{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{H}\mathrm{B}}/{H}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{H}\mathrm{B}}$  Minimum/maximum heating power absorption of the waste heat boiler in the mth microgrid 
${H}_{m,min}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{B}}/{H}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{B}}$  Minimum/maximum heating power generation of the gas boiler in the mth microgrid 
${H}_{m,min}^{\mathrm{c}}/{H}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{c}}$  Minimum/maximum heating power charging of the heat power storage in the mth microgrid 
${H}_{m,min}^{\mathrm{d}}/{H}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{d}}$  Minimum/maximum heating power discharging of the heat power storage in the mth microgrid 
I_{ij,t}  Current flowing in branch ij in the distribution network at the tth hour 
$k{f}_{i}^{\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{V}}$  Minimum power factor of the distributed photovoltaic inverter of node i in the PDN 
K_{G}/K_{m}  Utility grid/microgrids located nodes correlation matrix 
K_{ESS}/K_{DPV}  ESS/distributed photovoltaic located nodes correlation matrix 
l_{ij,t}  Square of the current flowing in branch ij in the distribution network at the tth hour 
L_{NG}  Heating value of natural gas 
${m}_{i}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Coefficient of the cost function of the node i of the electricity storage system (ESS) in the PDN 
${M}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{p}}$  Operation cost of the mth the microgrids at the tth hour 
${M}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{H}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Operation cost of the heat storage system in the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${M}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{H}\mathrm{B}}$  Operation cost of waste heat boiler in the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${M}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{T}}$  Operation cost of the wind turbine of the mth microgrid at the tth hour, which is assumed to be a constant 
${M}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{A}\mathrm{C}}/{M}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{C}}$  Operation cost of the absorption chiller/electrical chiller of the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
P_{ij,t}  Active power flow in branch ij in the distribution network at the tth hour 
${P}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{C}}$  Active power consumption of the electrical chiller of the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${P}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{V},\mathrm{m}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{x}}$  Maximum forecasted active power production of the distributed photovoltaic of node i in the PDN at the tth hour 
${P}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{D}}/{Q}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{D}}$  Active and reactive power loads of the mth microgrid at the tth hour 
${P}_{t}^{\mathrm{G}}/{Q}_{t}^{\mathrm{G}}$  Active/reactive power transported from the utility grid at the tth hour 
${P}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{D}}/{Q}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{D}}$  Active and reactive power of node i of the PDN at the tth hour 
${P}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{P}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{C}}/{Q}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{P}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{C}}$  Maximum amount of active/reactive power traded at the point of common coupling between the mth microgrid and the PDN 
${P}_{m,min}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}/{P}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}$  Minimum/maximum active power production of the gas turbine in the mth microgrid 
${P}_{m,min}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{C}}/{P}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{C}}$  Minimum/maximum active power consumption of the electrical chiller in the mth microgrid 
${P}_{t,min}^{\mathrm{G}}/{P}_{t,max}^{\mathrm{G}}$  Minimum/maximum active power transported from the utility grid at the tth hour 
${P}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{P}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{C}}/{Q}_{m,max}^{\mathrm{P}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{C}}$  Maximum amount of active/reactive power traded at the point of common coupling between the mth microgrid and the PDN 
P_{m,t}/Q_{m,t}  Transported quantity of the mth microgrid of active/reactive power at the tth hour 
${P}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}/{H}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}$  Active/heating power production of the gas turbine at the tth hour 
${P}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{V}}/{Q}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{V}}$  Active/reactive power production of the distributed photovoltaic of node i of the PDN at the tth hour 
Q_{ij,t}  Reactive power flowing in branch ij in the distribution network at the tth hour 
${Q}_{t,min}^{\mathrm{G}}/{Q}_{t,max}^{\mathrm{G}}$  Minimum/maximum reactive power transported from the utility grid at the tth hour 
r_{ij,t}/x_{ij,t}  Resistance/reactance of branch ij in the distribution network 
${S}_{i}^{\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{V}}$  Capacity of the distributed photovoltaic inverter of node i of the PDN 
${S}_{m,t}^{\mathrm{H}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Amount of heat stored in the electrical chiller at the tth hour 
$SO{C}_{i,min}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}/SO{C}_{i,max}^{\mathrm{E}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Minimum/maximum state of charge of the ESS in the node i in the PDN 
V_{min,i,t}/V_{max,i,t}  Voltage limitations of node i in the distribution network 
V_{i,t}  Nodal voltage in node i in the distribution network at the tth hour 
U_{i,t}  Square of nodal voltage in node i in the distribution network at the tth hour 
U_{b,t}  Voltage drop in branch b in the distribution network at the tth hour 
${w}_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{n}}^{\mathrm{w}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{l}\mathrm{l}}/{w}_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{x}}^{\mathrm{w}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{l}\mathrm{l}}$  Limitations of the gas supplied quantity from the gas well at the tth hour 
w_{uv,t}  Gas flow from node u to node v in the GDN at the tth hour 
${w}_{t}^{\mathrm{w}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{l}\mathrm{l}}$  Gas production by node u in the gas well at the tth hour 
${w}_{u,t}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}/{w}_{u,t}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{B}}$  Gas consumption by GT/GB at node u in the gas distribution system at the tth hour 
ψ_{min}/ψ_{max}  Limitations of the gas nodal pressure in the GDN at the tth hour 
ρ_{c}  Compression factor of the compressor 
ψ_{u,t}  Gas nodal pressure in node u in the gas distribution network at the tth hour 
ψ_{ct,t}/ψ_{cf,t}  Gas nodal pressure of the inlet and outlet of the compressor in the GDN at the tth hour 
${\eta}_{m}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{T}}$  Efficiency of the gas turbine in the mth microgrid 
${\eta}_{m}^{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{B}}$  Efficiency of the gas boiler in the mth microgrid 
${\eta}_{m}^{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{H}\mathrm{B}}$  Efficiency of the waste heat boiler in the mth microgrid 
${\eta}_{i}^{\mathrm{c},\mathrm{E}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}/{\eta}_{i}^{\mathrm{d},\mathrm{E}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Charging/discharging efficiency of the ESS of node i in the PDN 
${\eta}_{m}^{\mathrm{c},\mathrm{H}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}/{\eta}_{m}^{\mathrm{d},\mathrm{H}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{S}}$  Charging/discharging efficiency of the heat storage system in the mth microgrid 
/
〈  〉 