Organizational capital is an institutional arrangement in a firm’s production and management activities, which helps integrate all resources in the firm and affect the firm’s strategic choice and performance. This paper classifies organizational capital into three subtypes, namely power orientated capital, norm orientated capital and knowledge orientated capital. Moreover, strategic proactiveness is also brought into this influencing process. Results show that strategic proactiveness fully mediates the effect of power orientated capital on firm performance, but partially mediates that of norm orientated capital. It is also found that neither power nor norm orientated capital affects innovative performance, whereas knowledge orientated capital affects directly both financial performance and innovative performance. The significance of this research is to provide a meaningful supplement to the theory of decision-making-process for the top management team. Suggestions on how to cultivate organizational capital are provided for Chinese enterprises.
This paper explores the mechanism by which trust climate influences individual performance. From the perspective of psychological dynamics, we investigate the relationship among perceptions of organizational climate, motivation and individual behaviors to crystallize how a trustworthy organizational environment favors superior individual performance. 203 employees and their supervisors participated in this study, the results show that trust climate benefits individual performance through fostering psychological safety, which in turn influences individual performance via two mutually complementary pathways, namely ability to focus and organizational learning. Psychological safety is conducive to increasing individual ability to focus and improving job performance. Moreover, it is also instrumental in enhancing individual willingness to learn and experiment with new methods as an effort to achieve superior performance. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
Based on an analysis of the dynamic trend of the environment in which Chinese enterprises operate and the theory of dynamic competition, this paper seeks to propose a new strategic management pattern—the “dynamic paradigm”, which has mainly resulted from an integration of the theoretic contributions of the two strategic management streams. It ultimately aims at enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of strategic management in an environment full of uncertainties. The dynamic paradigm designed to explore today’s real business world is characterized by: 1) viewing strategic management as a process of both proactive plans and in-the-process reaction, both point and process decision-making and both rational and non-rational decision-making; 2) stressing the roles played by speed and innovation in the dynamic competition; 3) highlighting the inherent ties and the interaction among the three phases of strategic management; 4) emphasizing the critical impacts on the effectiveness and efficiency of strategic management by corporate governance, organizational structure, managerial mechanism, mode of control, composition of top-management team and corporate culture.
This research empirically studies customer loyalty in the intermittent service industry with samples from the catering business in Beijing. Results show that customer loyalty in the intermittent service industry is composed of three causally related dimensions, namely cognitive loyalty, affective loyalty, and behavioral loyalty. Factors influencing customer loyalty in the intermittent service industry are customer satisfaction, service quality, and customer perceived value (CPV), in descending order of significance. These factors vary in their function mechanisms and effects on different dimensions of customer loyalty.
Recently, guanxi has become one of the hottest topics in domestic academia. Although relationship and guanxi are the same in Chinese characters, significant differences exist between the “relationship” in the western academic context and what Chinese people are familiar with, the Chinese “guanxi”. The indiscriminate imitation of the western relationship marketing in China neglecting the Chinese native culture context is detrimental to a true and thorough understanding of the Chinese relationship marketing practice. Therefore, it is of great significance to conduct research on guanxi in the Chinese native commercial context. Based on domestic and foreign literature review, this paper uses a qualitative research method including content analysis and focus group to get a thorough understanding of guanxi both from the academia and from the practitioners, followed by quantitative analysis methods including questionnaire investigation and factor analysis to develop a native commercial guanxi concept scale. After comparison of the qualitative and quantitative research results, an integrated guanxi concept system is built, which lays foundation for the future guanxi research.
Strategic alliance can aid firms to build and sustain their competitive advantages. Firms set up strategic alliance mainly for two purposes: resource acquisition and capability learning. Formal control and social control are two widely adopted control mechanisms to secure the effectiveness of strategic alliance. In this study, we construct a model to analyze the choice of control mechanisms based on alliance motivations and the influence of control mechanisms on alliance performance. Based on a survey of 607 Chinese firms, we find that when resource acquisition is the key motivation behind alliance, formal control should be enhanced. Whereas when capability learning is the main purpose of alliance, social control becomes a better choice. Furthermore, this research also finds that the impact of both formal control and social control on alliance performance are nonlinear. Suggestions are provided on how to effectively use control mechanisms to attain the purposes of strategic alliance and on how to use control mechanisms to enhance alliance performance.
For half a century, no consensus has been reached on optimal capital structure after numerous intensive studies. This paper develops three alternative simple models to derive optimal capital structure. Because the optimal leverage ratio determined by the models is close to most survey data, some relevant puzzles, such as “financial conservatism”, are easily explained. In addition, the new models can be extended to accommodate various decision situations, for instance, abnormal growth, bankrupt expectancy, debt guarantee, transaction cost, and personal income tax.
Based on empirical evidence from enterprises in Jiangsu Province, this paper studies key influencing factors of their innovation activities at the micro level. Results show that a “threshold effect” and a reversed U-shaped relationship exist between an enterprise’s size and intensity of its innovation input when factors such as brand, entrepreneur background, HR, industrial and regional differences are controlled. Agglomeration effect is found influencing an enterprise’s innovation activities negatively rather than positively. A non-linear relationship is also found between an enterprise’s innovation activities and export ratio, showing a “capture effect”. A behavior mode of the effects of these influencing factors on innovation activities of China’s manufacturing enterprises is established and implications are provided.