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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (5) : 1215-1231     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-020-0663-y
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer-strengthened tubular steel T-joints
Peng DENG1,2(), Boyi YANG2, Xiulong CHEN2, Yan LIU1,2
1. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
2. College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
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Abstract

A method for strengthening damaged tubular steel T-joints under axial compression by wrapping them with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets was proposed and evaluated. The influence of the CFRP strengthening on the failure mode and load capacity of T-joints with different degrees of damage was investigated using experiments and finite element analyses. Five T-joints were physically tested: one bare joint to obtain the peak load and corresponding displacement (D1m), two reinforced joints to provide a reference, and two pre-damaged then retrofitted joints to serve as the primary research objects. The ratio of the pre-loaded specimen chord displacement to the value of D1m was considered to be the degree of damage of the two retrofitted joints, and was set to 0.80 and 1.20. The results demonstrate that the maximum capacity of the retrofitted specimen was increased by 0.83%–15.06% over the corresponding unreinforced specimens. However, the capacity of the retrofitted specimen was 2.51%–22.77% lesser compared with that of the directly reinforced specimens. Next, 111 numerical analysis models (0.63≤b≤0.76, 9.70≤g≤16.92) were established to parametrically evaluate the effects of different geometric and strengthening parameters on the load capacity of strengthened tubular T-joints under different degrees of damage. The numerical analysis results revealed that the development of equivalent plastic strain at the selected measuring points was moderated by strengthening with CFRP wrapping, and indicated the optimal CFRP strengthening thickness and wrapping orientation according to tubular T-joint parameters. Finally, reasonable equations for calculating the load capacity of CFRP-strengthened joints were proposed and demonstrated to provide accurate results. The findings of this study can be used to inform improved CFRP strengthening of damaged tubular steel structures.

Keywords tubular T-joint      carbon fiber-reinforced polymer      degree of damage      numerical analysis      equivalent plastic strain     
Corresponding Author(s): Peng DENG   
Just Accepted Date: 25 August 2020   Online First Date: 18 September 2020    Issue Date: 16 November 2020
 Cite this article:   
Peng DENG,Boyi YANG,Xiulong CHEN, et al. Experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer-strengthened tubular steel T-joints[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(5): 1215-1231.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-020-0663-y
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2020/V14/I5/1215
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Peng DENG
Boyi YANG
Xiulong CHEN
Yan LIU
Fig.1  Specimen configuration and dimensions.
Fig.2  CFRP installation methods: (a) wrapping orientation of 0°/90° and (b) wrapping orientation of 45°/135°.
specimen degree of pre-damage chord brace β CFRP sheets
d0× t0 (mm) l0 (mm) d1× t1 (mm) l1 (mm) wrap orientation layer lc (mm)
T1-6 194 × 6 1180 127 × 6 464 0.65
T1-CV6 [0°/90°] 2 682
T1-CF6 [45°/135°] 2 682
T1-D80-CV6 0.80D1m [0°/90°] 2 682
T1-D120-CF6 1.20D1m [45°/135°] 2 682
Tab.1  Test specimens
member tensile yield stress, fy (N/mm2) ultimate tensile stress, fu (N/mm2) fy/fu elongation, d (%)
brace 325 476 0.683 17.85
chord 334 480 0.696 21.32
Tab.2  Material properties of steel
material type tensile strength (MPa) tensile modulus (GPa) thickness (mm) breaking elongation (%)
CFRP (SKO-I-300) 4900 240 0.111 1.7
Tab.3  Material properties of CFRP
material type viscosity (MPa·s) epoxy value (eq/100 g) organic chlorine (eq/100 g) inorganic chlorine (eq/100 g)
adhesive (E-51) 2000–2500 0.48–0.54 0.02 0.001
Tab.4  Technical parameters of epoxy resin E-51
material type compressive strength (kg/cm2) punching strength (kg/cm2) flexural strength (kg/cm2) tensile strength (kg/cm2) viscosity (MPa·s) volume resistivity (W·cm)
hardener (593) 1266 8–12 859 375 100±50 9 × 1013
Tab.5  Technical parameters of Hardener 593
Fig.3  Test setup.
Fig.4  Layout of LVDTs.
Fig.5  Failure modes of test specimens: (a) T1-6; (b) T1-CV6; (c) T1-D80-CV6; (d) T1-D120-CF6.
specimen P1m (kN) P1rm (kN) P2m (kN) (P1r(2)mP1m)/P1m (%) D1m (mm) D1rm (mm) Dpre (mm) D2m (mm)
T1-6 239.71 5.82
T1-CV6 256.70 7.10 8.64
T1-CF6 246.00 2.90 8.03
T1-D80-CV6 244.49 2.10 4.65 7.79
T1-D120-CF6 241.23 0.84 6.98 6.66
Tab.6  Test results
Fig.6  Load-displacement curves during first step loading.
Fig.7  Load-displacement curves during second step loading.
Fig.8  Mesh sensitivity evaluation of specimen T1-CV6.
Fig.9  Meshes of (a) T-joint specimens and (b) CFRP sheets.
Fig.10  FE model boundary conditions and loading methods.
Fig.11  (a) Numerical simulation and (b) test deformation of T1-6; (c) numerical simulation and (d) test deformation of T1-CV6.
Fig.12  Comparison of numerical and experimental load-displacement curves of (a) undamaged specimens and (b) retrofitted specimens.
group variable evaluated chord brace γ β CFRP sheets degree of damagea)
d0 (mm) t0 (mm) d1 (mm) t1 (mm) qf
(°)
tc
(mm)
Ec
(GPa)
T2
T3
T4
qf 194 6 127 6 16.17 0.65 0/90
45/135
60/120
0.111 240 0.50D1m,
0.80D1m,
1.20D1m,
1.50D1m,
2.00D1m
T5
T6
T7
T8
t0 194 6
7
8
10
127 6 16.17 13.86
12.13
9.70
0.65 0/90 0.111 240
T9
T10
T11
T12
d0 168 180 194 203 6 127 6 14.00 15.00
16.17 16.92
0.76 0.71
0.65 0.63
0/90 0.111 240
T13
T14
tc 194 6 127 6 16.17 0.65 0/90 0.111 0.167 240
T15
T16
T17
T18
Ec 194 6 127 6 16.17 0.65 0/90 0.111 240 360 480 600
Tab.7  Value of dimensional variables for the parametric study
Fig.13  Distribution of measuring points on the (a) chord elevation and (b) chord section.
Fig.14  Equivalent plastic strain at measuring points on (a) T2-6 and (b) T2-CV6 at different concave chord displacements.
group specimen P1m (kN) P1rm (kN) P2m (kN) P2m/P1m (%) P2m/P1rm (%) D1m (mm) D1rm (mm) D2m (mm)
T2 T2-6 229.78 7.43
T2-CV6 255.82 10.59?
T2-D50-CV6 237.28 103.26? 92.75 ?8.65
T2-D80-CV6 235.19 102.35? 91.94 ?9.49
T2-D120-CV6 221.69 95.39 86.66 24.78
T2-D150-CV6 218.41 95.05 85.38 25.25
T2-D200-CV6 215.67 93.86 84.31 29.85
T3 T3-CF6 250.07 8.53
T3-D50-CF6 231.46 100.73? 92.56 7.75
T3-D80-CF6 228.99 99.66 91.57 ?7.89
T3-D120-CF6 207.70 90.39 83.06 22.02
T3-D150-CF6 205.22 89.31 82.07 23.09
T3-D200-CF6 202.51 88.13 80.98 26.98
T4 T4-CS6 253.74 9.78
T4-D50-CS6 235.01 102.28? 92.62 8.01
T4-D80-CS6 232.81 101.32? 91.75 ?8.59
T4-D120-CS6 218.63 95.15 86.16 22.15
T4-D150-CS6 215.32 93.71 84.86 23.57
T4-D200-CS6 213.05 92.72 83.96 27.01
Tab.8  Comparison of specimens in groups T2, T3, and T4
Fig.15  Load-displacement curves of T2 group specimens.
Fig.16  Equivalent plastic strain of specimens with different CFRP wrapping orientations.
Fig.17  (a) Load-displacement curves of groups T5–T8 and (b) the brace buckling failure of T7-D120-CV8.
Fig.18  (a) Load-displacement curves of group T9–12 and (b) the punching shear failure of T12-D120-CV6.
group specimen tc
(mm)
P1m
(kN)
P1rm
(kN)
P2m
(kN)
P2m/P1m
(%)
P2m/P1rm
(%)
D1m
(mm)
D1rm
(mm)
D2m
(mm)
T13 T13-6 0.111 229.78 7.43
T13-CV6 255.82 10.59
T13-D50-CV6 237.28 103.26 92.75 ?8.65
T13-D80-CV6 235.19 102.35 91.94 ?9.49
T13-D120-CV6 221.69 ?96.48 86.66 24.78
T13-D150-CV6 218.41 ?95.05 85.38 25.25
T13-D200-CV6 215.67 ?93.86 84.31 29.85
T14 T14-CV6 0.167 262.14 11.27
T14-D50-CV6 244.29 106.31 93.19 18.59
T14-D80-CV6 242.36 105.47 92.45 19.48
T14-D120-CV6 240.63 104.72 91.79 23.19
T14-D150-CV6 239.07 104.04 91.19 22.96
T14-D200-CV6 237.00 103.14 90.41 26.75
Tab.9  Comparison of maximum capacity and corresponding displacement in groups T13 and T14
Fig.19  Load-displacement curves of specimens in groups T13 and T14.
Fig.20  Equivalent plastic strain at measuring points under different CFRP thickness.
Fig.21  Load-displacement curves of specimens with a pre-damage displacement of 1.20D1m.
Fig.22  Relationship between degree of damage and correction coefficient.
specimen degree of pre-damage Ffrp (kN) Fdfrp (kN) Fnum (kN) difference (%)
T6-D50-CV7
T6-D80-CV7
T6-D120-CV7
T6-D150-CV7
T6-D200-CV7
0.50D1m
0.80D1m
1.20D1m
1.50D1m
2.00D1m
334.91 300.39
296.59
281.55
279.75
271.44
295.03
291.95
256.26
255.47
244.64
1.82
1.59
9.87
9.50
10.95?
T10-D50-CV6
T10-D80-CV6
T10-D120-CV6
T10-D150-CV6
T10-D200-CV6
0.50D1m
0.80D1m
1.20D1m
1.50D1m
2.00D1m
284.49 257.77
244.64
240.47
237.35
232.14
243.55
240.33
230.97
222.00
216.31
1.73
1.79
4.11
6.91
7.32
T17-D50-CV6
T17-D80-CV6
T17-D120-CV6
T17-D150-CV6
T17-D200-CV6
0.50D1m
0.80D1m
1.20D1m
1.50D1m
2.00D1m
277.77 241.92
238.86
234.79
231.74
226.65
241.92
238.86
234.79
231.74
226.65
5.44
5.79
6.57
7.08
8.51
Tab.10  Comparison of bearing capacities obtained from FE models and proposed equation
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