Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (5) : 1196-1214     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-020-0662-z
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Punching of reinforced concrete slab without shear reinforcement: Standard models and new proposal
Luisa PANI, Flavio STOCHINO()
Department of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Cagliari 09123, Italy
Download: PDF(1283 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

Reinforced concrete (RC) slabs are characterized by reduced construction time, versatility, and easier space partitioning. Their structural behavior is not straightforward and, specifically, punching shear strength is a current research topic. In this study an experimental database of 113 RC slabs without shear reinforcement under punching loads was compiled using data available in the literature. A sensitivity analysis of the parameters involved in the punching shear strength assessment was conducted, which highlighted the importance of the flexural reinforcement that are not typically considered for punching shear strength. After a discussion of the current international standards, a new proposed model for punching shear strength and rotation of RC slabs without shear reinforcement was discussed. It was based on a simplified load-rotation curve and new failure criteria that takes into account the flexural reinforcement effects. This experimental database was used to validate the approaches of the current international standards as well as the new proposed model. The latter proved to be a potentially useful design tool.

Keywords punching shear strength      reinforced concrete      slabs      reinforcement ratio     
Corresponding Author(s): Flavio STOCHINO   
Just Accepted Date: 31 August 2020   Online First Date: 28 September 2020    Issue Date: 16 November 2020
 Cite this article:   
Luisa PANI,Flavio STOCHINO. Punching of reinforced concrete slab without shear reinforcement: Standard models and new proposal[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(5): 1196-1214.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-020-0662-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2020/V14/I5/1196
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Luisa PANI
Flavio STOCHINO
Fig.1  ACI 318 critical perimeter for rectangular column.
Fig.2  EC2 critical perimeter for rectangular column.
Fig.3  Load-rotation curve for RC slab (Eq. (5)), failure criterion curve (Eq. (6)) and intersection point representing theoretical punching load Vtheo,MC10 and relative theoretical rotation ytheo,MC10.
Fig.4  Experimental punching load and ultimate rotation (Vpunch-ypunch)exp for 113 considered slabs. Square brackets are literature references.
Ref. year no. of samples primary research focus and characteristics. ψ
[10] 1996 7 High strength concrete; proposal for a new failure criterion. I
[11] 2005 10 Low flexural reinforcement ratio r, variations of slabs dimensions and maximum aggregate size. Crack development, comparison between the ACI 318, EC2, and CSCT models. D
[12] 2000 6 Scale effect; comparison between ACI 318 and Canadian standard model. I
[13] 1956 22 CSCT model; investigated parameters: concrete compressive strength fc; flexural reinforcement ratior; compressive reinforcement ratio r′; load surface dimensions; and boundary conditions. D
[14] 2016 15 Recycled concrete; concrete compressive strength fc. I
[15] 2012 6 Recycled concrete; concrete compressive strength fc. I
[16] 2013 12 Flexural reinforcement ratio r. I
[17] 2012 5 Experimental test for validation of Muttoni model. D
[18] 2015 8 Recycled concrete; concrete compressive strength fc. I
[19] 2015 4 High strength concrete; concrete compressive strength fc; flexural reinforcement ratio r, comparison between ACI 318, EC2, and MC10 models. I
[20] 1996 18 High strength concrete; concrete compressive strength fc; flexural reinforcement ratio r; comparison between ACI 318, EC2, MC90, and BS8110. D
Tab.1  Reference, publication year, number of samples, primary focus of research, and punching rotation assessment method of experimental database
symbol parameters n xmin xmax x ¯
h thickness (mm) 113 50 550 148
h/L thickness/span 113 0.05 0.31 0.09
r flexural reinforcement ratio 113 0.15% 3.7% 1.1%
r′/r top/bottom reinforcement ratio 56 0.11 1 0.53
a/L load surface size/span 113 0.05 0.28 0.13
dg maximum aggregate size (mm) 113 4.0 38.1 18.3
dg/h maximum aggregate size/thickness 113 0.02 0.4 0.16
fc concrete compressive cylindrical strength (MPa) 113 12.8 130 50
fy steel yielding strength (MPa) 113 303 709 504
Tab.2  Variability of geometrical and mechanical parameters of slab database
Fig.5  Frequency distribution of sample mechanical and geometrical parameters. (a) h/L; (b) a/L; (c) ρ; (d) ρ′/ρ; (e) dg; (f) dg/h; (g) fc; (h) fy.
Fig.6  Comparison of test results: Vpunch,exp,adm-ypunch,exp.
Fig.7  Comparison of test results: Vpunch,exp,adm-h/L.
Fig.8  Comparison of test results: Vpunch,exp,adm-a/L.
Fig.9  Comparison of test results: Vpunch,exp,adm-dg/h.
Fig.10  Comparison of test results: Vpunch,exp,adm-r.
Fig.11  Comparison of test results: Vpunch,exp,adm-r′/r.
Fig.12  Load-rotation curves from Kinnunen-Nylander tests [22].
Fig.13  Comparison of test results: Vpunch,exp,adm-yexp for different r. (a) r =0.2%–0.3%; (b) r =0.5%–0.6%; (c) r =0.7%–1.2%; (d) r =2.0%–4.0%.
Fig.14  Comparison between experimental and theoretical punching loads obtained using ACI 318 punching model. (a) Complete data set; (b) range 0–1000 kN.
Fig.15  Comparison between experimental and theoretical punching loads obtained using EC2 punching model. (a) Complete data set; (b) detail of range 0–1000 kN.
Fig.16  Comparison between experimental and theoretical punching loads obtained using simplified MC10 model. (a) Complete data set; (b) range 0–1000 kN.
Fig.17  Experimental punching rotation and theoretical values using MC10 model. (a) Complete data set; (b) range 0–0.04 rad.
item model average min. max. CoV
Vpunch,exp/Vpunch,theo MC10 1.27 0.78 1.77 0.16
ACI 318 1.27 0.59 2.00 0.26
EC2 1.17 0.74 1.71 0.18
ypunch,exp/ypunch,theo MC10 1.27 0.41 6.81 0.64
Tab.3  Punching shear strength standard models results
Fig.18  Load-rotation curves and failure criterion of MC10 and proposed approach considering slab tests reported in Refs. [11] and [13]. (a) Small value of flexural reinforcement ratio (r = 0.2%), case extracted from Ref. [11]; (b) average value of flexural reinforcement ratio (r = 0.5%), case extracted from Ref. [13]; (c) large value of flexural reinforcement ratio (r = 2.5%), case extracted from Ref. [13].
Fig.19  Comparison between experimental and new proposed theoretical punching loads. (a) Complete data set; (b) range 0–1000 kN.
Fig.20  Comparison between experimental and new proposed theoretical ultimate rotation. (a) Complete data set; (b) range 0–0.04 rad.
Fig.21  Comparison between experimental and theoretical punching loads obtained using new proposed model with dg: (a) Complete data set; (b) range 0–1000 kN.
Fig.22  Comparison between experimental and theoretical ultimate rotation obtained using new proposed model with dg: (a) Complete data set; (b) range 0–0.04 rad.
item model average min. max. CoV
Vpunch,exp/Vpunch,theo MC10 1.27 0.78 1.77 0.16
ACI 318 1.27 0.59 2.00 0.26
EC2 1.17 0.74 1.71 0.18
new proposal 1.06 0.66 1.46 0.16
new proposal with dg 1.10 0.62 1.64 0.21
ypunch,exp/ypunch,theo MC10 1.27 0.41 6.81 0.64
new proposal 1.29 0.38 8.68 0.87
new proposal with dg 1.27 0.48 7.82 0.75
Tab.4  Models performance in punching load and ultimate rotation estimation.
Fig.23  Fig.A1 Kinnunen-Nylander [22] punching model.
1 B Vakhshouri, S Nejadi. Instantaneous deflection of light-weight concrete slabs. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 2017, 11(4): 412–423
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0416-8
2 J Wu, X Liu. Performance of soft-hard-soft (SHS) cement based composite subjected to blast loading with consideration of interface properties. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 2015, 9(3): 323–340
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-015-0301-2
3 J Baroth, L Daudeville, Y Malécot. About empirical models predicting the missile perforation of concrete barriers. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 2012, 16(9): 1074–1089
https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2012.699746
4 K Micallef, J Sagaseta, M Fernández Ruiz, A Muttoni. Assessing punching shear failure in reinforced concrete flat slabs subjected to localised impact loading. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 2014, 71: 17–33
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2014.04.003
5 J Sagaseta, N Ulaeto, J Russel. Structural robustness of concrete flat slab structures. In: Proceedings of ACI-fib International Symposium on Punching Shear of Structural Concrete Slabs 2016. Philadelphia, 2016
6 Fib Bulletin N. Punching Shear of Structural Concrete Slabs. Technical Report, 2017
7 EN-1992-1-1, Eurocode 2. Design of Concrete Structures. Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. 2008
8 ACI 318. Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. 2011
9 Fib Bulletin N. Model Code 2010. 2010
10 M Hallgren. Punching shear capacity of reinforced high strength concrete slabs. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996
11 S Guandalini. Symmetric punching in R/C slabs. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Lausanne: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, 2005 (in French)
12 K K L Li. Influence of size on punching shear strength. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Montreal McGill University, 2000
13 R C Elstner, E Hognestad. Shearing strength of reinforced concrete slabs. ACI Journal Proceedings, 1956, 53(2): 29–58
14 L Francesconi, L Pani, F Stochino. Punching shear strength of reinforced recycled concrete slabs. Construction & Building Materials, 2016, 127: 248–263
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.094
15 H S Rao , V S K Reddy , V G Ghorpade. Influence of recycled coarse aggregate on punching behaviour of recycled coarse aggregate concrete slabs. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), 2015, 2(4): 2815–2820
https://doi.org/10.1.1.416.8390.
16 M F Ruiz, Y Mirzaei, A Muttoni. Post-punching behavior of flat slabs. ACI Structural Journal, 2013, 110(5): 801–811
17 S Lips. Punching of flat slabs with large amounts of shear reinforcement. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Lausanne: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, 2012
18 N Reis, J de Brito, J R Correia, M R T Arruda. Punching behaviour of concrete slabs incorporating coarse recycled concrete aggregates. Engineering Structures, 2015, 100: 238–248
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.06.011
19 M M G Inácio, A F O Almeida , D M V Faria , V J G, Lucio A. Pinho-Ramos Punching of high strength concrete flat slabs without shear reinforcement. Engineering Structures, 2015, 103: 275–284
20 K E Ramdane. Punching shear of high performance concrete slabs. In: The 4th International Symposium on Utilization of High-strength/High Performance Concrete. Paris, 1996
21 A Muttoni. Punching shear strength of reinforced concrete slabs without transverse reinforcement. ACI Structural Journal, 2008, 105(4): 440–450
22 S Kinnunen, H Nylander. Punching of Concrete Slabs without Shear Reinforcement, Transactions of the Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm, Sweden, 1960
23 A Marí , A Cladera, E Oller, J M Bairàn. A punching shear mechanical model for reinforced concrete flat slabs with and without shear reinforcement. Engineering Structures, 2018, 166: 413–426
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.03.079
24 T T Bui, A Limam, W S A Nana, E Ferrier, M Bost, Q B Bui. Evaluation of one-way shear behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs: Experimental and numerical analysis. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 2017, 24(2): ‏ 190–216
25 V Sigrist, E Bentz, M F Ruiz, S Foster, A Muttoni. Background to the fib Model Code 2010 shear provisions—part I: Beams and slabs. Structural Concrete, 2013, 14(3): 195–203
https://doi.org/10.1002/suco.201200066
26 J Hedebratt, J Silfwerbrand. Full-scale test of a pile supported steel fibre concrete slab. Materials and Structures, 2014, 47(4): 647–666
https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-013-0086-5
27 M Hassan, E A Ahmed, B Benmokrane. Punching-shear design equation for two-way concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars and stirrups. Construction & Building Materials, 2014, 66: 522–532
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.036
28 M Bastien-Masse, E Brühwiler. Experimental investigation on punching resistance of R-UHPFRC-RC composite slabs. Materials and Structures, 2016, 49(5): 1573–1590
https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-015-0596-4
29 F Stochino, L Pani, L Francesconi, F Mistretta. Cracking of reinforced recycled concrete slabs. International Journal of Structural Glass and Advanced Materials Research, 2017, 1(1): 3–9
https://doi.org/10.3844/sgamrsp.2017.3.9
30 M Etxeberria, A R Marí, E Vázquez. Recycled aggregate concrete as structural material. Materials and Structures, 2007, 40(5): 529–541
https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-006-9161-5
31 J Xiao, W Wang, Z Zhou, M M Tawana. Punching shear behavior of recycled aggregate concrete slabs with and without steel fibres. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 2019, 13(3): 725–740
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-018-0510-6
32 M Etxeberria, J M Fernandez, J Limeira. Secondary aggregates and seawater employment for sustainable concrete dyke blocks production: Case study. Construction & Building Materials, 2016, 113: 586–595
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.03.097
33 J Valivonis, T Skuturna, M Daugevičius, A Šneideris. Punching shear strength of reinforced concrete slabs with plastic void formers. Construction & Building Materials, 2017, 145: 518–527
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.04.057
34 K S Youm, J J Kim, J Moon. Punching shear failure of slab with lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and low reinforcement ratio. Construction & Building Materials, 2014, 65: 92–102
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.097
35 M Fernández Ruiz, A Muttoni, J Sagaseta. Shear strength of concrete members without transverse reinforcement: A mechanical approach to consistently account for size and strain effects. Engineering Structures, 2015, 99: 360–372
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.05.007
36 J C Walraven. Fundamental analysis of aggregate interlock. Journal of Structural Engineering, 1981, 107(11): 2245–2270
37 F J Vecchio, M P Collins. The modified compression-field theory for reinforced concrete elements subjected to shear. ACI Journal Proceedings, 1986, 83(2): 219–231
38 T T Bui, S Abouri, A Limam, W S A NaNa, B Tedoldi, T Roure. Experimental investigation of shear strength of full-scale concrete slabs subjected to concentrated loads in nuclear buildings. Engineering Structures, 2017, 131: 405–420
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.10.045
39 W S A Nana, T T Bui, A Limam, S Abouri. Experimental and numerical modelling of shear behaviour of full-scale RC slabs under concentrated loads. Structures, 2017, 10: 96–116
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2017.02.004
40 W S A Nana, T T Bui, M Bost, A Limam. Shear bearing capacity of rc slabs without shear reinforcement: Design codes comparison. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 2019, 23: 321–334
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-018-0612-7
41 J T Simões, M Fernández Ruiz, A Muttoni. Validation of the Critical shear crack theory for punching of slabs without transverse reinforcement by means of a refined mechanical model. Structural Concrete, 2018, 19(1): 191–216
https://doi.org/10.1002/suco.201700280
42 S Kirkpatrick, C D Gelatt, M P. Vecchi Optimization by simulated annealing. Science, 1983, 220(4598): 671–680
43 F Stochino, A Qinami, M Kaliske. Eigenerosion for static and dynamic brittle fracture. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 2017, 182: 537–551
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2017.05.025
44 F Buffa, A Causin, A Cazzani, S Poppi, G Sanna, M Solci, F Stochino, E Turco. The Sardinia Radio Telescope: A comparison between close-range photogrammetry and finite element models. Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids, 2017, 22(5): 1005–1026
https://doi.org/10.1177/1081286515616227
45 F Stochino, A Cazzani, S Poppi, E Turco. Sardinia radio telescope finite element model updating by means of photogrammetric measurements. Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids, 2017, 22(4): 885–901
https://doi.org/10.1177/1081286515616046
46 G R Liu. The smoothed finite element method (S-FEM): A framework for the design of numerical models for desired solutions. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 2019, 13(2): 456–477
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0519-5
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Dan V. BOMPA, Ahmed Y. ELGHAZOULI. Nonlinear numerical simulation of punching shear behavior of reinforced concrete flat slabs with shear-heads[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(2): 331-356.
[2] Chahmi OUCIF, Luthfi Muhammad MAULUDIN, Farid Abed. Ballistic behavior of plain and reinforced concrete slabs under high velocity impact[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(2): 299-310.
[3] Jordan CARTER, Aikaterini S. GENIKOMSOU. Investigation on modeling parameters of concrete beams reinforced with basalt FRP bars[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(6): 1520-1530.
[4] Fei GAO, Zhiqiang TANG, Biao HU, Junbo CHEN, Hongping ZHU, Jian MA. Investigation of the interior RC beam-column joints under monotonic antisymmetrical load[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(6): 1474-1494.
[5] Ahmadreza RAMEZANI, Mohammad Reza ESFAHANI. Effect of fiber hybridization on energy absorption and synergy in concrete[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(6): 1338-1349.
[6] Sheng PENG, Chengxiang XU, Xiaoqiang LIU. Truss-arch model for shear strength of seismic-damaged SRC frame columns strengthened with CFRP sheets[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(6): 1324-1337.
[7] Mohammad Reza AZADI KAKAVAND, Reza ALLAHVIRDIZADEH. Enhanced empirical models for predicting the drift capacity of less ductile RC columns with flexural, shear, or axial failure modes[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(5): 1251-1270.
[8] Mounir Ait BELKACEM, Hakim BECHTOULA, Nouredine BOURAHLA, Adel Ait BELKACEM. Effect of axial load and transverse reinforcements on the seismic performance of reinforced concrete columns[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(4): 831-851.
[9] Abeer A. AL-MUSAWI. Determination of shear strength of steel fiber RC beams: application of data-intelligence models[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 667-673.
[10] Pengfei HE, Yang SHEN, Yun GU, Pangyong SHEN. 3D fracture modelling and limit state analysis of prestressed composite concrete pipes[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(1): 165-175.
[11] Harry FAR,Deacon FLINT. Significance of using isolated footing technique for residential construction on expansive soils[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2017, 11(1): 123-129.
[12] Ali KEZMANE,Said BOUKAIS,Mohand Hamizi. Numerical simulation of squat reinforced concrete wall strengthened by FRP composite material[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2016, 10(4): 445-455.
[13] Xianming SHI. Experimental and modeling studies on installation of arc sprayed Zn anodes for protection of reinforced concrete structures[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2016, 10(1): 1-11.
[14] Antonio MARÍ,Antoni CLADERA,Jesús BAIRÁN,Eva OLLER,Carlos RIBAS. Shear-flexural strength mechanical model for the design and assessment of reinforced concrete beams subjected to point or distributed loads[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2014, 8(4): 337-353.
[15] Witarto WITARTO,Liang LU,Rachel Howser ROBERTS,Y. L. MO,Xilin LU. Shear-critical reinforced concrete columns under various loading rates[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2014, 8(4): 362-372.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed