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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (2) : 473-486
Impacts of climate change on optimal mixture design of blended concrete considering carbonation and chloride ingress
Xiao-Yong WANG()
Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si 24341, Korea
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Many studies on the mixture design of fly ash and slag ternary blended concrete have been conducted. However, these previous studies did not consider the effects of climate change, such as acceleration in the deterioration of durability, on mixture design. This study presents a procedure for the optimal mixture design of ternary blended concrete considering climate change and durability. First, the costs of CO2 emissions and material are calculated based on the concrete mixture and unit prices. Total cost is equal to the sum of material cost and CO2 emissions cost, and is set as the objective function of the optimization. Second, strength, slump, carbonation, and chloride ingress models are used to evaluate concrete properties. The effect of different climate change scenarios on carbonation and chloride ingress is considered. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal mixture considering various constraints. Third, illustrative examples are shown for mixture design of ternary blended concrete. The analysis results show that for ternary blended concrete exposed to an atmospheric environment, a rich mix is necessary to meet the challenge of climate change, and for ternary blended concrete exposed to a marine environment, the impact of climate change on mixture design is marginal.

Keywords ternary blended concrete      climate change      optimal mixture design      carbonation      chloride ingress     
Corresponding Author(s): Xiao-Yong WANG   
Just Accepted Date: 05 March 2020   Online First Date: 08 April 2020    Issue Date: 08 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Xiao-Yong WANG. Impacts of climate change on optimal mixture design of blended concrete considering carbonation and chloride ingress[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(2): 473-486.
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Xiao-Yong WANG
component cement fly ash slag water superplasticizer coarse aggregate fine aggregate
price 2.25 0.6 1.2 0.01 25.1 0.236 0.28
Tab.1  Unit prices of concrete components [14] (unit: NT dollar/kg)
component cement fly ash slag water superplasticizer coarse aggregate fine aggregate
CO2 emission 0.931 0.0196 0.0265 0.000196 0.25 0.0075 0.0026
Tab.2  Unit CO2 emissions of concrete components [7] (unit: kg)
limits of component item cement fly ash slag water superplasticizer coarse aggregate fine aggregate
lower limit (kg/m3) lower limit (kg) 140 ??0 ??0 150 ?3 ?780 640
upper limit (kg/m3) upper limit (kg) 350 200 240 250 15 1050 900
Tab.3  Lower and upper limits of concrete components (unit: kg/m3)
limits of component ratio water-to-cement ratio water-to-binder ratio water-to-solid ratio superplasticizer-to-binder ratio fly ash-to-binder ratio slag-to-binder ratio mineral mixtures-to-binder ratio aggregate-to-binder ratio sand ratio
lower limit 0.6 0.3 0.08 0.013 0.00 0.0 0.25 2.7 0.40
upper limit 1.6 0.7 0.12 0.040 0.55 0.6 0.70 6.4 0.52
Tab.4  Component ratio constraints
Fig.1  Evaluations of concrete strength and slump: (a) compressive strength; (b) slump.
Fig.2  parameter analysis of effects of mineral admixtures on durability. (a) Carbonation-W/B0.5-30% mineral admixtures; (b) carbonation-W/B0.5-50% mineral admixtures; (c) carbonation-W/B0.4-50% mineral admixtures; (d) chloride ingress-W/B0.5-30% mineral admixtures; (e) chloride ingress-W/B0.5-50% mineral admixtures; (f) chloride ingress-W/B0.4-50% mineral admixtures.
Fig.3  Flowchart of calculation.
Fig.4  Climate change scenarios. (a) CO2 concentration rise; (b) global temperature rise.
mixtures cement fly ash slag water superplasticizer coarse aggregate fine aggregate
Mix 1: ignoring carbonation 140.00 117.13 ?95.87 168.56 4.59 1050.00? 700.60
Mix 2: carbonation-no climate change 140.00 200.00 113.37 167.35 5.89 983.08 655.39
Mix 3: carbonation-RCP 4.5 142.55 200.00 132.61 167.45 6.18 970.81 647.21
Mix 4: carbonation-RCP 8.5 144.69 200.00 137.60 167.50 6.27 966.86 644.57
Mix 5: chloride ingress 140.00 ?84.63 122.26 168.89 4.51 1050.00? 714.22
Tab.5  Concrete mixtures (unit: kg/m3)
mixtures slump (cm) strength (MPa) carbonation depth (mm) CO2 cost (NT dollar/m3) material cost (NT dollar/m3) total cost (NT dollar/m3)
Mix 1: ignoring carbonation 6.50 30.00 33.40 70.35 1061.16 1131.51
Mix 2: carbonation-no climate change 12.71 36.14 25.00 71.22 1136.17 1207.39
Mix 3: carbonation-RCP 4.5 14.01 38.73 25.00 72.58 1166.92 1239.51
Mix 4: carbonation-RCP 8.5 14.35 39.56 25.00 73.60 1178.37 1251.97
Mix 5: chloride ingress 6.50 32.00 70.39 1075.15 1145.54
Tab.6  Performance of concrete
Fig.5  Carbonation depth of Mix 1.
mixtures water-to-cement ratio water-to-binder ratio water-to-solid ratio superplasticizer-to-binder ratio fly ash-to-binder ratio slag-to-binder ratio mineral mixtures-to-binder ratio aggregate-to-binder ratio sand ratio total
(including air)
Mix 1 1.204 0.478 0.080 0.013 0.332 0.272 0.603 4.959 0.400 1.000
Mix 2 1.195 0.369 0.080 0.013 0.441 0.250 0.691 3.614 0.400 1.000
Mix 3 1.175 0.352 0.080 0.013 0.421 0.279 0.700 3.405 0.400 1.000
Mix 4 1.158 0.347 0.080 0.013 0.415 0.285 0.700 3.341 0.400 1.000
Mix 5 1.206 0.487 0.080 0.013 0.244 0.352 0.596 5.086 0.405 1.000
Tab.7  Mass ratio of concrete components
Fig.6  Carbonation depth of Mix 2 for various climate change scenarios. (a) Mix 2-no climate change; (b) Mix 2-RCP 4.5; (c) Mix 2-RCP 8.5.
Fig.7  Carbonation depth of Mix 3 for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. (a) Mix 3-RCP 4.5; (b) Mix 3-RCP 8.5.
Fig.8  Carbonation depth of Mix 4 for RCP 8.5.
Fig.9  Carbonation depth of Mix 4 for RCP 8.5.
Fig.10  Chloride ingress of Mix5 for various climate change scenarios. (a) Mix5-no climate change; (b) Mix5-RCP 4.5; (c) Mix5-RCP 8.5.
Fig.11  CO2 cost, material cost, and total cost of concrete. (a) CO2 cost; (b) material cost; (c) total cost.
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