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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (3) : 569-585     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-020-0607-6
RESEARCH ARTICLE
State-of-the-art on resistance of bearing-type bolted connections in high strength steel
Guoqiang LI1, Yifan LYU2, Yanbo WANG2()
1. State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
2. College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
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Abstract

With the recent development of material science, high strength steel (HSS) has become a practical solution for landmark buildings and major projects. The current codes for design of bearing-type bolted connections of steel constructions were established based on the research of conventional steels. Since the mechanical properties of HSS are different from those of conventional steels, more works should be done to develop the appropriate approach for the design of bearing-type bolted connections in HSS. A review of the research carried out on bearing-type bolted connections fabricated from conventional steel and HSS is presented. The up-to-date tests conducted at Tongji University on four connection types fabricated from three grades of HSS with nominal yield strengths of 550, 690, and 890 MPa are presented. The previous research on failure modes, bearing resistance and the design with consideration of bolt hole elongation are summarized. It is found that the behavior of bolted connections in HSS have no drastic difference compared to that of conventional steel connections. Although the ductility is reduced, plastic deformation capacity of HSS is sufficient to ensure the load redistribution between different bolts with normal construction tolerances. It is also found that behavior of each bolt of multi-bolt connections arranged in perpendicular to load direction is almost identical to that of a single-bolt connection with the same end distance. For connections with bolts arranged in parallel to load direction, the deformation capacity of the whole connection depends on the minimum value between the end distance and the spacing distances in load direction. The comparison with existing design codes shows that Eurocode3 and Chinese GB50017-2017 are conservative for the design of bolted connections in HSS while AISC 360-16 may overestimate the bearing resistance of bolted connections.

Keywords High strength steel      bolted connection      bearing behavior      design codes     
Corresponding Author(s): Yanbo WANG   
Just Accepted Date: 31 March 2020   Online First Date: 11 May 2020    Issue Date: 13 July 2020
 Cite this article:   
Guoqiang LI,Yifan LYU,Yanbo WANG. State-of-the-art on resistance of bearing-type bolted connections in high strength steel[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(3): 569-585.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-020-0607-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2020/V14/I3/569
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Fig.1  Types of bolted connections for tests. (a) Type A: single-bolt connection; (b) Type B: two-bolt connection in parallel; (c) Type C: two-bolt or multi-bolt connection in tandem.
source connection
types*
number of bolts number of tested specimens according to fy (MPa)
<460 ≥460 and<1000 ≥1000
Frank and Yura [5] C 1, 2 30 0 0
Snijder et al. [68], Owens et al. [911] A 1 111 23 0
Kim and Yura [12] A, C 1,2 9 10 0
Puthli and Fleischer [13] B 2 0 25 0
Aalberg and Larsen [14,15] A, C 1,2 20 10 10
Clinton and Rex [16] A 1 43 5 0
Može and Beg [1719], Može [20] A, B, C 1, 3, 4 47 59 0
Draganić et al. [21] A, C 1 18 0 0
Guo et al. [22] B, C 2 0 10 0
Shi et al. [23] B 2 0 9 0
Liu et al. [24] A, C 1, 2 7 0 0
Wu et al. [25] A 1 20 20 0
the authors A, B, C 1, 2, 3 0 32 16
sum 305 203 26
in total 534
proportion 57% 38% 5%
Tab.1  Collected specimens in the previous specimens
codes allowed highest yield strength yielding strength of tested specimens
Eurocode3 700 252–470
AISC 360-16 690 279–331
GB50017-2017 460 <370
Tab.2  Allowed highest yield strength in current codes (MPa)
Fig.2  Failure mode observed by Kim and Yura [12]. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 49(3), Kim H J & Yura J A, The effect of ultimate-to-yield ratio on the bearing strength of bolted connections, 255–269, Copyright 1999, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.3  Two ultimate limit states. (a) Plate shear mode of failure; (b) plate shear mode of failure; (c) bolt hole elongation.
Fig.4  Simplified failure mode of plate shear.
Fig.5  Failure modes by Može and Beg [17]. (a) Tearout failure; (b) splitting failure; (c) net cross-section failure. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66(8–9), Može P, Beg D, High strength steel tension splices with one or two bolts, 1000–1010, Copyright 2010, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.6  Two failure modes and geometric parameter. (a) Bearing; (b) tearout; (c) geometry.
steel grade fy (MPa) fu (MPa) fy/fu E (GPa) eu D (%)
Q550D 677 757 0.894 205 0.0642 18.5
Q690D 825 859 0.960 203 0.0511 13.5
Q890D 1022 1064 0.960 203 0.0590 14.5
Tab.3  Material property
Fig.7  Tearout failure mode of SD connection [32,33]. (a) SD-10-30-550; (b) SD-12-30-550; (c) SD-15-30-550; (d) SD-20-30-550; (e) SD-25-30-550; (f) SD-10-30-690; (g) SD-12-30-690; (h) SD-15-30-690; (i) SD-20-30-690; (j) SD-25-30-690; (k) SD-10-30-890; (l) SD-12-30-890; (m) SD-15-30-890; (n) SD-20-30-890; (o) SD-25-30-890. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 137, Wang Y B, Lyu Y F, Li G Q, Liew J Y R, Behavior of single bolt bearing on high strength steel plate, 19–30, Copyright 2017, with permission from Elsevier. Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 153, Lyu Y F, Wang Y B, Li G Q, Jiang J, Numerical analysis on the ultimate bearing resistance of single-bolt connection with high strength steels, 118–129, Copyright 2019, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.8  Load-displacement of SD connections [32,33]. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 137, Wang Y B, Lyu Y F, Li G Q, Liew J Y R, Behavior of single bolt bearing on high strength steel plate, 19–30, Copyright 2017, with permission from Elsevier. Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 153, Lyu Y F, Wang Y B, Li G Q, Jiang J, Numerical analysis on the ultimate bearing resistance of single-bolt connection with high strength steels, 118–129, Copyright 2019, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.9  Effect of end distance e1 [32,33]. (a) Ultimate bearing resistance; (b) deformation at Fu. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 137, Wang Y B, Lyu Y F, Li G Q, Liew J Y R, Behavior of single bolt bearing on high strength steel plate, 19–30, Copyright 2017, with permission from Elsevier. Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 153, Lyu Y F, Wang Y B, Li G Q, Jiang J, Numerical analysis on the ultimate bearing resistance of single-bolt connection with high strength steels, 118–129, Copyright 2019, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.10  Comparison with extra experimental results [32,33]. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 137, Wang Y B, Lyu Y F, Li G Q, Liew J Y R, Behavior of single bolt bearing on high strength steel plate, 19–30, Copyright 2017, with permission from Elsevier. Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 153, Lyu Y F, Wang Y B, Li G Q, Jiang J, Numerical analysis on the ultimate bearing resistance of single-bolt connection with high strength steels, 118–129, Copyright 2019, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.11  Failure modes of two-bolt connection by Može and Beg [17,19]. (a) Plate shear failure; (b) net cross-section failure; (c) mixed failure I; (d) mixed failure II. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66(8–9), Može P, Beg D, High strength steel tension splices with one or two bolts, 126–140, Copyright 2010, with permission from Elsevier. Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 95, Može P, Beg D, A complete study of bearing stress in single bolt connections, 1000–1010, Copyright 2014, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.12  Net tension failure planes (Ant) and effective shear failure planes (Aev).
Fig.13  Failure mode of TH connection [40]. (a) TH-12-12-27-550; (b) TH-12-15-27-550; (c) TH-15-15-35-550; (d) TH-15-20-35-550. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 155, Wang Y B, Lyu Y F, Li G Q, Liew J Y R, Bearing-strength of high strength steel plates in two-bolt connections, 205–218, Copyright 2019, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.14  Load-displacement curve of TH connections.
specimen Q550D (mm) Q690D (mm) Q890D (mm)
TH-12-12-27 5.26 4.57 4.61
TH-12-15-27 5.29 4.46 4.61
SD-12-30 5.00 4.52 4.81
TH-15-15-35 6.64 5.52 5.54
TH-15-20-35 6.44 5.38 5.79
SD-15-30 6.96 5.37 5.52
Tab.4  Du of TH connections and comparison with SD connection
specimen Q550D (kN) Q690D (kN) Q890D (kN)
TH-12-12-27 439 516 620
TH-12-15-27 442 523 643
SD-12-30 (double) 452 498 656
TH-15-15-35 562 646 794
TH-15-20-35 576 654 834
SD-15-30 (double) 584 664 832
Tab.5  Ultimate bearing resistance of TH connections
Fig.15  Failure mode of multi-bolt by Može and Beg [18]. (a) Splitting failure; (b) failure between bolts; (c) net cross-section failure; (d) bolt shear failure. (Reprinted from Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(3), Može P, Beg D, Investigation of high strength steel connections with several bolts in double shear, 333–347, Copyright 2011, with permission from Elsevier.)
Fig.16  First activation of one bolt.
Fig.17  Combined tearout and bearing in multi-bolt connection.
Fig.18  Failure mode of TV connection. (a) TV-20-45-20-550; (b) TV-25-45-20-550; (c) TV-30-45-20-550; (d) TV-20-45-30-550.
Fig.19  Failure mode of TP connection. (a) TP-20-45-30-550; (b) TP-25-45-20-550; (c) TP-30-45-20-550.
Fig.20  Load-displacement of TV and TP connections. (a) TV specimens; (b) TP specimens.
specimen Q550D (kN) norm* Q690D (kN) norm Q890D (kN) norm
TV-20-45-20 671 3.69 766 3.64 961 3.65
TV-25-45-20 746 4.11 850 4.04 1062 4.04
TV-30-45-20 813 4.48 932 4.43 1151 4.37
TV-20-45-30 785 4.32 895 4.26 1115 4.24
TP-20-45-30 1178 6.48 1364 6.49 1648 6.27
TP-25-45-20 1031 5.67 1174 5.58 1502 5.71
TP-30-45-20 1124 6.19 1279 6.08 1623 6.17
Tab.6  Ultimate bearing resistance of TV and TP connections
Fig.21  Distribution of prediction for different connection types. (a) Single-bolt connection (SD); (b) two-bolt connection perpendicular to load direction (TH); (c) two-bolt connection parallel to load direction (TV); (d) three-bolt connection parallel to load direction (TP).
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