Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (3) : 646-663     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-020-0584-9
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Finite element modeling of thermo-active diaphragm walls
Yi RUI1, Mei YIN2()
1. Centre for Smart Infrastructure and Construction, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FA, UK
2. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Brunel Univisity, London UB8 3PH, UK
Download: PDF(3670 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

There are two major challenges faced by modern society: energy security, and lowering carbon dioxide gas emissions. Thermo-active diaphragm walls have a large potential to remedy one of these problems, since they are a renewable energy technology that uses underground infrastructure as a heat exchange medium. However, extensive research is required to determine the effects of cyclic heating and cooling on their geotechnical and structural performance. In this paper, a series of detailed finite element analyses are carried out to capture the fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical response of the ground and diaphragm wall. It is demonstrated that the thermal operation of the diaphragm wall causes changes in soil temperature, thermal expansion/shrinkage of pore water, and total stress applied on the diaphragm wall. These, in turn, cause displacements of the diaphragm wall and variations of the bending moments. However, these effects on the performance of diaphragm wall are not significant. The thermally induced bending strain is mainly governed by the temperature differential and uneven thermal expansion/shrinkage across the wall.

Keywords thermo-active diaphragm wall      finite element analysis      thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling      ground source heat pump     
Corresponding Author(s): Mei YIN   
Just Accepted Date: 11 March 2020   Online First Date: 16 June 2020    Issue Date: 13 July 2020
 Cite this article:   
Yi RUI,Mei YIN. Finite element modeling of thermo-active diaphragm walls[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(3): 646-663.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-020-0584-9
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2020/V14/I3/646
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Yi RUI
Mei YIN
Fig.1  Geometry and boundary conditions of the diaphragm wall.
Fig.2  Thermal boundary condition.
soil layer G?? (kPa ) φ (°) c ( kPa) ν Ψ (°) λ??(W/ m2K) C??( kJ/m3K) αε/°) k??( m/S)
made ground ???4000 22.2 ?0 0.2 0 1.25 2800 10 1× 104
terrace gravel ??20000 35.8 ?0 0.2 0 1.8? 2800 10 1× 104
London clay A3 ??32000 25?? ?5 0.2 0 1.6? 3200 10 1× 1010
London clay A2 ??42000 25?? ?5 0.2 0 1.6? 3200 10 1× 1010
Lambeth group UMC ?125000 28?? 10 0.2 0 2.1? 3200 10 1× 1010
Lambeth group LMC ?112000 23?? 10 0.2 0 2.1? 3200 10 1× 1010
Thanet sand ?167000 27?? 0 0.2 0 1.27 2800 10 1× 106
chalk ?167000 32?? 0 0.2 0 1.27 2400 10 1× 106
concrete 16700000 1.4? 2400 10
Tab.1  Properties of soils
ID parametric study assumed soil properties
A original value Table 1
B1 heat conductivity of soil λ λ×0.5
B2 heat conductivity of soil λ 2.0λ× 2.0
C1 permeability coefficient of soil k k×0.2
C2 permeability coefficient of soil k 5.0k× 5.0
D1 thermal expansion coefficient of concrete αc on αcon×0
D2 thermal expansion coefficient of concrete αcon αcon× 4.0
Tab.2  List of analyses
Fig.3  Comparison of the relative horizontal movements between the monitoring data and FEA during construction.
Fig.4  Temperature distribution with variations in the thermal conductivity of the soil (unit: °C): (a) analysis B1: λ×0.5; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis B2: λ ×2.
Fig.5  Horizontal total stress applied to the diaphragm wall on the unexcavated side with variations in the thermal conductivity: (a) analysis B1: λ× 0.5; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis B2: λ×2.
Fig.6  Horizontal relative displacement of the diaphragm wall with variations in the thermal conductivity: (a) analysis B1: λ×0.5; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis B2: λ ×2.
Fig.7  Bending moment of the diaphragm wall with variations in the thermal conductivity: (a) analysis B1: λ ×0.5; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis B2: λ× 2.
Fig.8  Pore water pressure applied to the diaphragm wall on the unexcavated side with variations in the permeability of the soil: (a) analysis C1: k ×0.2; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis C2: k×5.
Fig.9  Total stress applied to the diaphragm wall on the unexcavated side with variations in the permeability of the soil: (a) analysis C1: k×0.2; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis C2: k ×5.
Fig.10  Horizontal relative displacement of the diaphragm wall with variations in the permeability of the soil: (a) analysis C1: k×0.2; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis C2: k ×5.
Fig.11  Bending moment of the diaphragm wall with variations in the permeability of the soil: (a) analysis C1: k×0.2; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis C2: k ×5.
Fig.12  Horizontal total stress applied on the diaphragm wall on the unexcavated side with variations in the thermal expansion coefficient of concrete: (a) analysis D1: αcon×0; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis D2: αcon×4.
Fig.13  Horizontal relative displacement of the diaphragm wall with variations in the thermal expansion coefficient of the concrete: (a) analysis D1: αcon×0; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis D2: αcon×4.
Fig.14  Bending moment of the diaphragm wall with variations in the thermal expansion coefficient of the concrete: (a) analysis D1: αcon× 0; (b) analysis A: original value; (c) analysis D2: αcon× 4.
1 H Brandl. Energy foundations and other thermo-active ground structures. Geotechnique, 2006, 56(2): 81–122
https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2006.56.2.81
2 T P S Suckling, P Smith. Environmentally friendly geothermal piles at Keble College. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Piling and Deep Foundations. Nice: Deep Foundations Institute, 2002, 1016: 8–15
3 L Laloui, A Di Donna. Understanding the behaviour of energy geo-structures. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Civil Engineering, 2011, 164(4): 184–191
4 T Amis, C Robinson, S Wong. Integrating geothermal loops into the diaphragm walls of the Knightsbridge Palace Hotel project. In: EMAP-Basements and Underground Structures, 2010
5 P J Bourne-Webb, B Amatya, K Soga, T Amis, C Davidson, P Payne. Energy pile test at Lambeth College, London: Geotechnical and thermodynamic aspects of pile response to heat cycles. Geotechnique, 2009, 59(3): 237–248
https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2009.59.3.237
6 P J Bourne-Webb .Observed response of energy geostructures. Energy Geostructures: Innovation in underground engineering, 2013: 45–77
7 P J Bourne-Webb, T M Bodas Freitas, R M Freitas Assunção. Soil-pile thermal interactions in energy foundations. Geotechnique, 2016, 66(2): 167–171
https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeot.15.T.017
8 P J Bourne-Webb, T M Bodas Freitas, R A da Costa Gonçalves. Thermal and mechanical aspects of the response of embedded retaining walls used as shallow geothermal heat exchangers. Energy and Building, 2016, 125: 130–141
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.04.075
9 B L Amatya, K Soga, P J Bourne-Webb, T AMIS. Thermo-mechanical behaviour of energy piles. Géotechnique, 2012, 62(6): 503–519
10 C Knellwolf, H Peron, L Laloui. Geotechnical analysis of heat exchanger piles. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2011, 137(10): 890–902
https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000513
11 M E Suryatriyastuti, H Mroueh, S Burlon. A load transfer approach for studying the cyclic behaviour of thermo-active piles. Computers and Geotechnics, 2014, 55: 378–391
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2013.09.021
12 F Dupray, L Laloui, A Kazangba. Numerical analysis of seasonal heat storage in an energy pile foundation. Computers and Geotechnics, 2014, 55: 67–77
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2013.08.004
13 T Y Ozudogru, C G Olgun, A Senol. 3D numerical modeling of vertical geothermal heat exchangers. Geothermics, 2014, 51: 312–324
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2014.02.005
14 X Ma, G Qiu, J Grabe. Numerical simulation of an energy pile using thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling and a visco-hypoplastic model. Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS and AGSSEA, 2014, 45(2): 12–16
15 A Di Donna, F Dupray, L Laloui. Numerical study of the heating-cooling effects on the geotechnical behaviour of energy piles. In: Coupled Phenomena in Environmental Geotechnics. Torino: CRC Press, 2013: 475–482
16 K A Gawecka, D M G Taborda, D M Potts, W Cui, L Zdravković, M S Haji Kasri. Numerical modelling of thermo-active piles in London Clay. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Geotechnical Engineering, 2017, 170(3): 201–219
https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeen.16.00096
17 A F Rotta Loria, L Laloui. The interaction factor method for energy pile groups. Computers and Geotechnics, 2016, 80: 121–137
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.07.002
18 A F Rotta Loria, A Vadrot, L Laloui. Effect of non-linear soil deformation on the interaction among energy piles. Computers and Geotechnics, 2017, 86: 9–20
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.12.015
19 Y Rui, M Yin. Investigations of pile–soil interaction under thermo-mechanical loading. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2018, 55(7): 1016–1028
https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2017-0091
20 Y Rui, K Soga. Thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling analysis of a thermal pile. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Geotechnical Engineering, 2019, 172(2): 155–173
https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeen.16.00133
21 X Zhuang, R Huang, C Liang, T Rabczuk. A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model of jointed hard rock for compressed air energy storage. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2014, 2014: 179169
22 D Sterpi, A Coletto, L Mauri. Investigation on the behaviour of a thermo-active diaphragm wall by thermo-mechanical analyses. Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment, 2017, 9: 1–20
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gete.2016.10.001
23 Y Rui, M Yin. Thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling analysis of a thermo-active diaphragm wall. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2018, 55(5): 720–735
https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2017-0158
24 Y Rui, D Garber, M Yin. Modelling ground source heat pump system by an integrated simulation programme. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2018, 134: 450–459
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.01.123
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Jordan CARTER, Aikaterini S. GENIKOMSOU. Investigation on modeling parameters of concrete beams reinforced with basalt FRP bars[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(6): 1520-1530.
[2] Yonghui WANG, Ximei ZHAI. Development of dimensionless P-I diagram for curved SCS sandwich shell subjected to uniformly distributed blast pressure[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(6): 1432-1445.
[3] Alireza FARZAMPOUR, Matthew Roy EATHERTON. Parametric computational study on butterfly-shaped hysteretic dampers[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(5): 1214-1226.
[4] Hassan ABEDI SARVESTANI. Parametric study of hexagonal castellated beams in post-tensioned self-centering steel connections[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(5): 1020-1035.
[5] Il-Sang AHN, Lijuan CHENG. Seismic analysis of semi-gravity RC cantilever retaining wall with TDA backfill[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2017, 11(4): 455-469.
[6] Witarto WITARTO,Liang LU,Rachel Howser ROBERTS,Y. L. MO,Xilin LU. Shear-critical reinforced concrete columns under various loading rates[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2014, 8(4): 362-372.
[7] Haitham DAWOOD,Mohamed ELGAWADY,Joshua HEWES. Factors affecting the seismic behavior of segmental precast bridge columns[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2014, 8(4): 388-398.
[8] Yiyi CHEN,Wei SUN,Tak-Ming CHAN. Cyclic stress-strain behavior of structural steel with yield-strength up to 460 N/mm2[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2014, 8(2): 178-186.
[9] Sunghwan KIM,Halil CEYLAN,Kasthurirangan GOPALAKRISHNAN. Finite element modeling of environmental effects on rigid pavement deformation[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2014, 8(2): 101-114.
[10] Yuepeng DONG, Harvey BURD, Guy HOULSBY, Yongmao HOU. Advanced finite element analysis of a complex deep excavation case history in Shanghai[J]. Front Struc Civil Eng, 2014, 8(1): 93-100.
[11] Guochang LI, Hongping YU, Chen FANG. Performance study on T-stub connected semi-rigid joint between rectangular tubular columns and H-shaped steel beams[J]. Front Struc Civil Eng, 2013, 7(3): 296-303.
[12] Chin-Yee ONG, Jin-Chun CHAI. Lateral displacement of soft ground under vacuum pressure and surcharge load[J]. Front Arch Civil Eng Chin, 2011, 5(2): 239-248.
[13] DONG Zhen, ZHANG Qilin. Study on shear resistance of aluminum alloy I-section members[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2008, 2(1): 79-86.
[14] TONG Lewei, GU Min, CHEN Yiyi, ZHOU Liying, SUN Jiandong, CHEN Yangji, LIN Yingru, LIN Gao. Strength of tubular welded joints of roof trusses in Shanghai Qizhong Tennis Center[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2008, 2(1): 30-36.
[15] SHEN Zuyan, WU Aihui. Seismic analysis of steel structures considering damage cumulation[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2007, 1(1): 1-11.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed