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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (4) : 890-903     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0524-8
RESEARCH ARTICLE
A combined control strategy using tuned liquid dampers to reduce displacement demands of base-isolated structures: a probabilistic approach
Parham SHOAEI1(), Houtan Tahmasebi ORIMI2
1. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 46516-34445, Iran
2. Department of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 19519-66441, Iran
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Abstract

This paper investigates a hybrid structural control system using tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) and lead-rubber bearing (LRB) systems for mitigating earthquake-induced vibrations. Furthermore, a new approach for taking into account the uncertainties associated with the steel shear buildings is proposed. In the proposed approach, the probabilistic distributions of the stiffness and yield properties of stories of a set of reference steel moment frame structures are derived through Monte-Carlo sampling. The approach is applied to steel shear buildings isolated with LRB systems. The base isolation systems are designed for different target base displacements by minimizing a relative performance index using Genetic Algorithm. Thereafter, the base-isolated structures are equipped with TLDs and a combination of the base and TLD properties is sought by which the maximum reduction occurs in the base displacement without compromising the performance of the system. In addition, the effects of TLD properties on the performance of the system are studied through a parametric study. Based on the analyses results, the base displacement can be reduced 23% by average, however, the maximum reduction can go beyond 30%.

Keywords tuned liquid damper      lead-rubber bearing system      probabilistic framework      steel shear building      relative performance index      Monte-Carlo sampling     
Corresponding Authors: Parham SHOAEI   
Just Accepted Date: 07 March 2019   Online First Date: 24 April 2019    Issue Date: 10 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Parham SHOAEI,Houtan Tahmasebi ORIMI. A combined control strategy using tuned liquid dampers to reduce displacement demands of base-isolated structures: a probabilistic approach[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(4): 890-903.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-019-0524-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2019/V13/I4/890
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Parham SHOAEI
Houtan Tahmasebi ORIMI
mode number 3-story 6-story 9-story
natural period (s) modal mass natural period (s) modal mass natural period (s) modal mass
1 1.005 82.8% 1.532 87% 2.245% 83.5%
2 0.312 13.5% 0.533 9% 0.850% 10.6%
3 0.155 3.7% 0.295 3% 0.489% 3.6%
Tab.1  Dynamic characteristics of the building models
property mean CoV
concrete density (kN/m3) 24 0.04
section area Anominal 0.04
steel yield stress (MPa) fy 0.07
steel modulus of elasticity (MPa) Esp 0.03
Tab.2  Uncertainties associated with the structural models
story 3-story 6-story 9-story
mean (kN/mm) CoV mean (kN/mm) CoV mean (kN/mm) CoV
1 133.652 0.030 65.057 0.032 132.852 0.033
2 76.456 0.030 77.825 0.032 164.355 0.033
3 65.235 0.030 67.526 0.032 151.405 0.033
4 - - 62.769 0.032 142.125 0.033
5 - - 47.963 0.031 128.635 0.032
6 - - 50.365 0.031 124.215 0.032
7 - - - - 89.729 0.031
8 - - - - 69.897 0.031
9 - - - - 64.884 0.030
Tab.3  Distribution parameters for the stiffness of stories
Fig.1  Comparison between the empirical CDF and Lognormal CDF for the 3-story model: (a) 1st story; (b) 2nd story; (c) 3rd story
Fig.2  Correlation matrix for story stiffness. (a) 3-story; (b) 6-story; (c) 9-story
story 3-story 6-story 9-story
mean (kN) CoV mean (kN) CoV mean (kN) CoV
1 4191.10 0.054 2586.24 0.064 6141.81 0.056
2 3164.15 0.064 2504.78 0.063 5610.26 0.063
3 2051.54 0.007 2371.92 0.063 5308.45 0.060
4 - - 2108.72 0.064 5031.62 0.059
5 - - 1631.35 0.063 4809.42 0.060
6 - - 823.48 0.074 4512.89 0.062
7 - - - - 3809.47 0.061
8 - - - - 2905.85 0.061
9 - - - - 1778.15 0.079
Tab.4  Distribution parameters for the story yield shear (Vy)
story 3-story 6-story 9-story
mean CoV mean CoV mean CoV
1 0.073 0.130 0.064 0.095 0.062 0.192
2 0.159 0.096 0.075 0.105 0.091 0.096
3 0.132 0.088 0.066 0.109 0.010 0.082
4 - - 0.051 0.101 0.102 0.091
5 - - 0.040 0.251 0.102 0.092
6 - - 0.155 0.612 0.086 0.092
7 - - - - 0.091 0.114
8 - - - - 0.086 0.168
9 - - - - 0.061 0.328
Tab.5  Distribution parameters for the story post-yield stiffness ratio (a)
Fig.3  Correlation matrix for story yield shear: (a) 3-story; (b) 6-story; (c) 9-story
Fig.4  Correlation matrix between Vy and a: (a) 3-story; (b) 6-story; (c) 9-story
Fig.5  2D scheme of the MDOF shear building model
story 3-story 6-story 9-story
max. drift ratio max. abs. acceleration (g) max. drift ratio max. abs. acceleration (g) max. drift ratio max. abs. acceleration (g)
mean 0.0271 0.762 0.0221 0.701 0.0254 0.728
CoV 0.310 0.287 0.360 0.281 0.228 0.312
P 0.33 0.32 0.26
Tab.6  Distribution parameters for the maximum drift ratio and the maximum absolute acceleration
Fig.6  Results of the optimization problem using Genetic Algorithm: (a) 3-story, xbtarget = 200 mm; (b) 3-story, xbtarget = 250 mm; (c) 3-story, xbtarget = 300 mm; (d) 6-story, xbtarget = 200 mm; (e) 6-story, xbtarget = 250 mm; (f) 6-story, xbtarget = 300 mm, 9-story; (g) xbtarget = 200 mm; (h) 9-story xbtarget = 250 mm; (i) 9-story xbtarget = 300 mm
property 3-story
target base displacement (mm)
6-story
target base displacement (mm)
9-story
target base displacement (mm)
200 250 300 200 250 300 200 250 300
k1t (kN/mm) 115 31 62 52 44 35 108 61 45
k2t (kN/mm) 11.5 3.1 6.2 5.2 4.4 3.5 10.8 6.1 4.5
Fyt (kN) 1523 2561 924 1886 1374 842 4442 5059 4869
RPI 0.52 0.46 0.36 0.71 0.60 0.47 0.80 0.69 0.61
maximum base displacement (mm) 196 248 300 205 239 298 204 252 301
Tab.7  Optimum design variables for different building models
Fig.7  2D  scheme of the tuned liquid damper
Fig.8  Hybrid control system
Fig.9  Effects of mass ratio on RPI for a constant frequency ratio: (a) 3-story (b = 1.2), xbtarget = 200 mm; (b) 3-story, xbtarget = 250 mm; (c) 3-story, xbtarget = 300 mm; (d) 6-story (b = 0.6), xbtarget = 200 mm; (e) 6-story, xbtarget = 250 mm; (f) 6-story, xbtarget = 300 mm, 9-story (b = 1.2); (g) xbtarget = 200 mm; (h) 9-story xbtarget = 250 mm; (i) 9-story xbtarget = 300 mm
Fig.10  Effects of frequency ratio on RPI for m = 0.01: (a) 3-story, xbtarget = 200 mm; (b) 3-story, xbtarget = 250 mm; (c) 3-story, xbtarget = 300 mm; (d) 6-story, xbtarget = 200 mm; (e) 6-story, xbtarget = 250 mm; (f) 6-story, xbtarget = 300 mm, 9-story; (g) xbtarget = 200 mm; (h) 9-story, xbtarget = 250 mm; (i) 9-story, xbtarget = 300 mm
property 3-story
target base displacement (mm)
6-story
target base displacement (mm)
9-story
target base displacement (mm)
200 250 300 200 250 300 200 250 300
frequency ratio 1.3 1.3 1.2 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.3 1.4 1.2
mass ratio 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02
k1t (kN/mm) 90 80 50 50 70 40 120 70 60
Fyt (kN) 2500 2000 1750 2500 1400 1500 5750 6250 6000
RPI 0.53 0.46 0.39 0.74 0.64 0.54 0.86 0.73 0.65
maximum base displacement (mm) 171 194 240 126 189 228 134 179 233
reduction 11.2% 20.7% 19.1% 35.5% 19.3% 21.7% 32% 29.1% 19.8%
Tab.8  Optimum  properties of the hybrid control systems
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