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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (3) : 725-740
Punching shear behavior of recycled aggregate concrete slabs with and without steel fibres
Jianzhuang XIAO(), Wan WANG, Zhengjiu ZHOU, Mathews M. TAWANA
Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
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A study on the punching shear behavior of 8 slabs with recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) was carried out. The two main factors considered were the recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) replacement percentage and the steel fibre volumetric ratio. The failure pattern, load-displacement curves, energy consumption, and the punching shear capacity of the slabs were intensively investigated. It was concluded that the punching shear capacity, ductility and energy consumption decreased with the increase of RCA replacement percentage. Research findings indicated that the incorporation of steel fibres could not only improve the energy dissipation capacity and the punching shear capacity of the slab, but also effectively improve the integrity of the slab tension surface and thereby changing the trend from typical punching failure pattern to bending-punching failure pattern. On the basis of the test, the punching shear capacity formula of RAC slabs with and without steel fibres was proposed and discussed.

Keywords recycled aggregate concrete      steel fibres      slab      punching shear      recycled coarse aggregates replacement percentage     
Corresponding Author(s): Jianzhuang XIAO   
Online First Date: 06 December 2018    Issue Date: 05 June 2019
 Cite this article:   
Jianzhuang XIAO,Wan WANG,Zhengjiu ZHOU, et al. Punching shear behavior of recycled aggregate concrete slabs with and without steel fibres[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 725-740.
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Jianzhuang XIAO
Zhengjiu ZHOU
Mathews M. TAWANA
apparent particle density (kg/m3) bulk density
clay content
fineness modulus
2670 1420 0.9 2.7
Tab.1  The properties of fine aggregates (medium sand)
Fig.1  RCAs particle size distribution
type bulk density (kg/m3) apparent particle density
water absorption (%) clay content
crushing index (%)
NCA 1465 2810 0.6 0.9 3.5
RCA 1460 2514 5.0 3.8 13.7
Tab.2  The properties of NCA and RCA
specimen cement water sand NCA RCA additional water steel fibres
RAC0 433 210 630 1173 0 0.00 0.0
RAC30-0% 821 352 17.55 0.0
RAC50-0% 587 587 29.35 0.0
SFRAC50-0.5% 587 587 29.35 39.3
SFRAC50-1.0% 587 587 29.35 78.5
RAC100-0% 0 1173 58.65 0.0
SFRAC100-0.5% 0 1173 58.65 39.3
SFRAC100-1.0% 0 1173 58.65 78.5
Tab.3  Concrete mix-proportion (unit: kg/m3)
specimen cube compressive strength axial compressive strength elastic module
( ×104 )
RAC0 52.25 39.90 3.73
RAC30-0% 44.65 31.35 3.50
RAC50-0% 38.95 33.25 2.96
SFRAC50-0.5% 42.75 38.95 3.20
SFRAC50-1% 43.70 36.10 3.05
RAC100-0% 37.05 28.50 2.74
SFRAC100-0.5% 38.00 31.35 2.32
SFRAC100-1% 40.85 32.30 2.47
Tab.4  Cube compressive strength and the elastic modulus of concrete (unit: MPa)
Fig.2  Slab dimensions (unit: mm)
Fig.3  The loading setup
Fig.4  The arrangement of strain gauges (unit: mm). (a) Strain gauges on concrete; (b) strain gauges on reinforcement
Fig.5  The arrangement of LVDTs (unit: mm)
Fig.6  The punching failure photos of concrete slabs. (a) RAC0; (b) RAC30; (c) RAC50; (d) SFRAC50-0.5%; (e) SFRAC50-1%; (f) RAC100; (g) SFRAC100-0.5%; (h) SFRAC100-1%
specimen failure deflection (mm) punching ultimate load (kN)
RAC0 29.28 320.0
RAC30 22.59 313.4
RAC50 22.34 307.1
SFRAC50-0.5% 35.36 366.8
SFRAC50-1% 32.95 370.6
RAC100 23.48 303.4
SFRAC100-0.5% 21.98 331.2
SFRAC100-1% 34.30 350.2
Tab.5  The load and deflection of the slabs punching failure
Fig.7  The relationship between slab load and reinforcement strain. (a) No. S-1–S-5 of RAC0; (b) No. S-1–S-5 of RAC30; (c) No. S-1–S-5 of RAC50; (d) No. S-1–S-5 of SFRAC50-0.5%; (e) No. S-1–S-5 of SFRAC50-1%; (f) No. S-1–S-5 of RAC100; (g) No. S-1–S-5 of SFRAC100-0.5%; (h) No. S-1–S-5 of SFRAC100-1%; (i) No. S-3 of RAC; (j) No. S-3 of RAC50 with steel fibres; (k) No. S-3 of RAC100 with steel fibres
Fig.8  The relationship between slab load and concrete strain. (a) RAC0; (b) RAC30; (c) RAC50; (d) SFRAC50-0.5%; (e) SFRAC50-1%; (f) RAC100; (g) SFRAC100-0.5%; (h) SFRAC100-1%; (i) No. C-1 of RAC; (j) No. C-1 of RAC100 with steel fibres
Fig.9  P Δ curves. (a)P Δcurve of 8 recycled concrete slabs; (b) PΔcurve of RAC without steel fibres; (c)P Δcurve of RAC50 with steel fibres; (d)P Δcurve of RAC100 with steel fibres; (e) PΔcurve of steel fibre reinforced RAC with Vf=0.5%; (f) PΔcurve of steel fibre reinforced RAC with Vf=1.0%
Fig.10  P Δ curve and equivalent ductility line
specimen displacement ductility coefficient energy absorption
RAC0 1.7706 6.6210
RAC30 1.7170 5.0504
RAC50 1.7132 4.8520
SFRAC50-0.5% 2.3500 10.2135
SFRAC50-1% 2.4917 9.6608
RAC100-0% 1.6502 4.3504
SFRAC100-0.5% 1.6908 5.1055
SFRAC100-1% 2.3655 9.4675
Tab.6  Displacement ductility coefficient and energy absorption
specimens cube cylinder
side (mm) strength grade
200 150 100 C20-40 C50 C60 C70 C80
compressive strength 0.950 1.000 1.050 0.800 0.830 0.860 0.875 0.890
Tab.7  Concrete compressive strength relative value of different shapes and sizes specimens [31]
slab fcu,k(MPa) fck (MPa) β P Vf(%) Pucal(kN) Pu( kN) Pucal/ Pu
RAC0 52.25 43.72 0.0 0.0 270.62 320.0 0.846
RAC30 44.65 36.34 0.0 0.0 254.44 313.4 0.812
RAC50 38.95 31.16 0.0 0.0 241.73 307.1 0.787
RAC100 37.05 29.64 0.0 0.0 237.73 303.4 0.784
SFRAC50-0.5% 42.75 34.55 0.5 0.5 284.60 366.8 0.776
SFRAC50-1% 43.70 35.45 0.5 1.0 321.74 370.6 0.868
SFRAC100-0.5% 38.00 30.40 0.5 0.5 272.71 331.2 0.823
SFRAC100-1% 40.85 32.78 0.5 1.0 313.45 350.2 0.895
Tab.8  Punching calculations of the steel fibres reinforced recycled concrete slab
Fig.11  The contrast between Pucal and Pu
The following abbreviations and symbols have been used in this paper:
RAC = recycled aggregate concrete
RCA = recycled coarse aggregate
SFRAC = steel fibre recycled aggregate concrete
LWAC = lightweight aggregate concrete
NAC = natural aggregate concrete
HRB = hot-rolled ribbed bar
LVDTs = linear variable differential transformers
h = the depth of slab (mm)
= the effective depth of slab (mm)
the failure load (kN)
= the deflection at the center of slab (mm)
the displacement ductility coefficient
Δ0 = the deflection corresponding to the failure load (mm)
Δy = the nominal yield deflection calculated by the method of equivalent energy (mm)
SΔ = the energy absorption of slab punching failure mode ( kN?m)
VRd,c = the design value of the punching shear resistance of a slab without punching shear reinforcement along the control section considered (MPa)
CRd,c = a parameter in Eq. (1)
γc = The partial factor for concrete
= a parameter in Eq. (1)
the reinforcement ratio for longitudinal reinforcement
d = the depth of slab (mm)
ρly = a parameter related to the bonded tension steel in y- direction
ρlz = a parameter related to the bonded tension steel in z- direction
fck = the characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete for 28 days (MPa)
σcp = The compressive stress in concrete from axial load or pre-stressing (MPa)
σcy = the normal concrete stress in the critical section in y- direction (MPa)
σcz = The normal concrete stress in the critical section in z- direction (MPa)
μ1 = the basic control perimeter (mm)
νmin? = a parameter in Eq. (1)
βp = the influencing factor of the steel fibre on reinforced RAC
Vf = the volume of steel fibres
lf = the length of steel fibres (mm)
df = the diameter of steel fibres (mm)
Pucal = the calculated value of concrete slabs’ punching shear capacity (kN)
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