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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (1) : 49-65     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0448-0
REVIEW |
Hot-dip galvanizing of cold-formed steel hollow sections: a state-of-the-art review
Min SUN1(), Jeffrey A. PACKER2
1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada
2. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4, Canada
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Abstract

A good understanding of the effects of galvanizing on the short- and long-term behaviours of steel components is essential for structural design. This review paper is motivated by a series of recent reports on cracking in galvanized cold-formed tubular steel structures and the limitations of current steel product standards and steel design specifications in this field. The steel-related and galvanizing-related factors, different pre-galvanizing countermeasures for brittle cracking and the available technical documents are summarized. An extensive bibliography is provided as a basis for future research and development in this field.

Keywords cold-formed steel      hollow structural sections      hot-dip galvanizing      embrittlement      heat-treatment      residual stress      cracking     
Corresponding Authors: Min SUN   
Online First Date: 13 December 2017    Issue Date: 04 January 2019
 Cite this article:   
Min SUN,Jeffrey A. PACKER. Hot-dip galvanizing of cold-formed steel hollow sections: a state-of-the-art review[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(1): 49-65.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-017-0448-0
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2019/V13/I1/49
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Min SUN
Jeffrey A. PACKER
Fig.1  Hot-dip galvanizing procedures [2]
Fig.2  Examples of cold-formed RHS corner cracking during galvanizing. (a) Vancouver, Canada, 2016; (b) Vancouver, Canada, 2003 [11]; (c) Malaysia, 2009 [11]
Standard Grade Chemical composition (cast or product analysis), %max unless specified otherwise
C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Al Ti Cu Nb V Ni N B
ASTM A500 B 0.26 1.35 0.035 0.035
C 0.23 1.35 0.035 0.035
ASTM A1085 A 0.26 ≤0.04 or 0.15-0.25 1.35 0.035 0.035 ≥0.02
CSA-G40.20/G40.21 350W 0.23 0.40 0.50-1.50 0.04 0.05
EN 10219-1 S355J2H 0.22 0.55 1.60 0.03 0.03
AS/NZS 1163 350L0 0.20 0.45 1.60 0.03 0.03 0.30 0.10 0.10 0.04 Nb+V=0.11
450L0 0.20 0.45 1.70 0.03 0.03 0.50 0.35 0.10 0.04 Nb+V=0.11
JIS G3466 STKR490 0.18 0.55 1.50 0.04 0.04
GB/T 1591(1) Q345A 0.20 0.50 1.70 0.035 0.035 0.30 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.07 0.15 0.50 0.012
Q460C 0.20 0.60 1.80 0.030 0.030 0.30 0.20 0.20 0.55 0.11 0.20 0.80 0.015 0.004
Tab.1  Chemical compositions (by weight) for cold-formed RHS of common grades
Standard Grade Chemical elements for use in Eq. 2 (%)(1) CE per Eq.2(2)
C Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V Nb Ti B
ASTM A500 B 0.26 1.35 0.44
C 0.23 1.35 0.41
ASTM A1085 A 0.26 0.25 1.35 0.45
CSA-G40.20/G40.21 350W 0.23 0.40 1.50 0.45
EN 10219-1 S355J2H 0.22 0.55 1.60 0.47
AS/NZS 1163 350L0 0.20 0.45 1.60 0.30 0.10 0.11(3) 0.04 0.62
450L0 0.20 0.45 1.70 0.50 0.35 0.11(3) 0.04 0.76
JIS G3466 STKR490 0.18 0.55 1.50 0.41
GB/T 1591 Q345A 0.20 0.50 1.70 0.30 0.50 0.30 0.10 0.15 0.07 0.20 0.79
Q460C 0.20 0.60 1.80 0.55 0.80 0.30 0.20 0.20 0.11 0.20 0.004 2.61
Tab.2  Calculation of possible Carbon Equivalent using the maximum permissible value in steel product standards
Mill test report Chemical elements (%) CE per Eq.2(2)
C Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V Nb Ti B
#1 0.2 0.023 0.75 0.02 0.008 0.026 0.002 0.002 - 0.002 0.0(1) 0.31
#2 0.190 0.014 0.800 0.050 0.017 0.053 0.004 0.002 - 0.000 0.000(1) 0.32
#3 0.190 0.026 0.800 0.048 0.014 0.050 0.004 0.002 - 0.000 0.000(1) 0.32
#4 0.190 0.014 0.820 0.051 0.019 0.044 0.005 0.002 - 0.000 0.000(1) 0.32
#5 0.14 0.23 0.86 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.013 - - - 0.29
#6 0.14 0.24 0.87 0.01 0.05 0.003 0.00 0.003 - - - 0.28
Tab.3  Calculation of Carbon Equivalent using mill test reports
Fig.3  Cold-forming methods. (a) Direct-forming; (b) Continuous-forming
Specification RHS thickness, t (mm) Outside corner radius, ro
for fully Al-killed steel (Al≥0.02%) for fully Al-killed steel and C≤0.18%, P≤0.02% and S≤0.012%
ISO 14346:2013(1) 2.5≤t≤6 ≥2.0t ≥1.6t
6<t≤10 ≥2.5t ≥2.0t
10<t≤12 ≥3.0t ≥2.4t (up to t = 12.5)
12<t≤24 ≥4.0t
EN 10219-2 t≤6 1.6t to 2.4t
6<t≤10 2.0t to 3.0t
t>10 2.4t to 3.0t
ASTM A500 All t ≤3.0t
ASTM A1085 t≤10.2 1.6t to 3.0t
t>10.2 1.8t to 3.0t
CSA-G40.20/G40.21 t≤3 ≤6 mm
3<t≤4 ≤8 mm
4<t≤5 ≤15 mm
5<t≤6 ≤18 mm
6<t≤8 ≤21 to 24 mm
8<t≤10 ≤27 to 30 mm
10<t≤13 ≤36 to 39 mm
t>13 ≤3.0t
AS/NZS 1163 All t, up to 50×50 mm 1.5t to 3.0t
All t, larger than 50×50 mm 1.8t to 3.0t
JIS G3466 Allt ≤3.0t
GB/T 6728 for Fy>320 MPa t≤3 1.5t to 2.5t
3<t≤6 2.0t to 3.0t
6<t≤10 2.0t to 3.5t
t>10 2.5t to 4.0t
Tab.4  Manufacturing requirements for outside corner radii of cold-formed RHS
Specification Grade Fy (MPa) Fu (MPa) Fy/Fu
EN 10219-1 S355J2H 355 for t≤16
345 for 16<t≤40
510 for t<3
470 for 3≤t≤40
0.755 for 3≤t≤40
ASTM A500 B 315 400 0.788
C 345 425 0.812
ASTM A1085 A 345 450 0.767
CSA-G40.20/G40.21 350W 350 450 0.778
AS/NZS 1163 C350L0 350 430 0.814
C450L0 450 500 0.900
JIS G3466 STKR490 325 490 0.663
GB/T 6725 Q345 345 470 0.734
Tab.5  Minimum specified mechanical properties for cold-formed RHS of common grades
Fig.4  Measurements of residual stresses in cold-formed RHS. (a) Sectioning method [64]; (b) Hole-drilling method [53]; (c) X-ray diffraction method [53]
Fig.5  Application of anti-plating agent to prevent corner cracking during galvanizing [74]
ri inside corner radius
ro outside corner radius
t wall thickness
A cross-sectional area
CHS circular hollow section
CE carbon equivalent
E modulus of elasticity
ERW electric resistance welding
Fy yield stress
Fu tensile strength
HSS hollow structural section
I moment of inertia
K column effective length factor
L unsupported length of column
LME liquid metal embrittlement
RHS rectangular hollow section
epl plastic deformation
  
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