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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2018, Vol. 12 Issue (2) : 227-238     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0426-6
Research Article |
Investigation on the freeze-thaw damage to the jointed plain concrete pavement under different climate conditions
Shuaicheng GUO, Qingli DAI(), Jacob HILLER
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA
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Abstract

Freeze-thaw damage is one of the main threats to the long time performance of the concrete pavement in the cold regions. This project aims to evaluate the influence of the freeze-thaw damages on pavement distresses under different climate conditions. Based on the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) data base, the freeze-thaw damage generated by four different kinds of climate conditions are considered in this project: wet-freeze, wet-non freeze, dry-freeze and dry-non freeze. The amount of the transverse crack and the joint spalling, along with the International Roughness Index (IRI) are compared among the test sections located in these four different climate conditions. The back calculation with the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test results based on the ERES and the Estimation of Concrete Pavement Parameters (ECOPP) methods are conducted to obtain concrete slab elastic modulus and the subgrade k-value. These two parameters both decrease with service time under freeze condition. Finally, MEPDG simulation is conducted to simulate the IRI development with service year. These results showed the reasonable freeze-thaw damage development with pavement service life and under different climate conditions.

Keywords LTPP      elastic modulus      k-value      IRI      MEPDG     
Corresponding Authors: Qingli DAI   
Online First Date: 05 September 2017    Issue Date: 23 April 2018
 Cite this article:   
Shuaicheng GUO,Qingli DAI,Jacob HILLER. Investigation on the freeze-thaw damage to the jointed plain concrete pavement under different climate conditions[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2018, 12(2): 227-238.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-017-0426-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2018/V12/I2/227
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Shuaicheng GUO
Qingli DAI
Jacob HILLER
Fig.1  Locations of the research area. (A) Location of the studied sections in Utah state; (B) location of the studied sections in Ohio state; (C) location of the studied sections in Arizona state; (D) location of the studied sections in North Carolina state
state country route direction functional class No. of lanes climatic zone date of construction
Utah Box Elder interstate-15, north bound rural principal arterial-interstate 2 dry, freeze 01-Nov-1990
Ohio Delaware U.S.-23, north bound rural principal arterial-other 2 wet, freeze 01-Sep-1996
Arizona Maricopa U.S.-52, south bound urban other principal arterial 3 dry, non-freeze 01-Mar-1979
North Carolina Davidson U.S.-52, south bound rural principal arterial-other 2 wet, non-freeze 01-Jul-1994
Tab.1  The basic information about the studied locations
layer no. layer 1 layer 2 layer 3 layer 4 layer 5
layer type Portland cement concrete bound layer unbounded subbase unbounded subbase subgrade
thicknesses (in.) 9.8 4.2 4 18
material code 4-Portland cement concrete (JPCP) 334-lean concrete 304-crushed gravel 308-soil-aggregate mixture 267-coarse-grained soil: clayey gravel with sand
Tab.2  The construction information about the pavement structure in Utah
layer No. layer 1 layer 2 layer 3
layer type Portland cement concrete unbound (granular) base subgrade (untreated)
thicknesses (in.) 7.9 6.2
material code 4-Portland cement concrete (JPCP) 303-crushed stone 131-fine-grained soils: silty clay
Tab.3  The construction information about the pavement structure in Ohio
layer No. layer 1 layer 2
layer type Portland cement concrete subgrade (untreated)
thicknesses (in.) 13
material code 4-Portland cement concrete (JPCP) 267-coarse-grained soil: clayey gravel with sand
Tab.4  The basic information about the locations in Arizona
layer No. layer 1 layer 2 layer 3 layer 4
layer type Portland cement concrete bound (granular) base unbound (granular) base subgrade (untreated)
thicknesses (in.) 9.2 9.3 8
material code 4-Portland cement concrete (JPCP) 303-crushed stone 101-fine-grained soils: clay 338-lime-treated soil
Tab.5  The construction information about the pavement structure in North Carolina
Fig.2  Climate conditions and vehicle flowrate for the studied area in different states. (a) The annual precipitations of the studied sections in different states during research period; (b) the annual freeze index of the studied sections in different states during research period; (c) the annual equivalent single axle load (ESAL) of the studied sections in different states during research period; (d) the annual average daily truck traffic of the studied sections in different states during research period
Fig.3  IRI at different position in different states. (a) IRI in Ohio at different studied positions; (b) IRI in Utah at different studied positions; (c) IRI in Arizona at different studied positions; (d) IRI in North Carolina at different studied positions
Fig.4  The average IRI of the studied sections in Arizona, Ohio, North Carolina and Utah
Fig.5  The amount of the distress in different states at different studied positions: (a) the amount of transverse cracks in different states; (b) the amount of joint spalling in different states
selected method ERES ECOPP
test time 1996/12/31 2004/9/9 1996/12/31 2004/9/9
concrete elastic modulus 7.03×106 psi (48.47 GPa) 4.24×106 psi (29.23 GPa) 1.30×107 psi (89.64 GPa) 1.29×107 psi (88.37 GPa)
subgrade k-value 218.05 pci (59.31 MPa/m) 166.75 pci (45.36 MPa/m) 107.9 pci (29.35 MPa/m) 96.57 pci (26.27 MPa/m)
Tab.6  The construction information about sections in North Carolina
Fig.6  (a) Back calculation of elastic modulus of the concrete layer at position 39-0201 on 1996/12/31 with ERES method; (b) back calculation of k-value of the subgrade at position 39-0201 on 1996/12/31 with ERES method; (c) back calculation of elastic modulus of the concrete layer of position 39-0201 on 1996/12/31 with ECOPP method; (d) back calculation of k-value of the subgrade at position 39-0201 on 1996/12/31 with ECOPP method
Fig.7  (a) Back calculation of elastic modulus of the concrete layer at position 39-0201 on 2004/9/9 with ERES method; (b) back calculation of k-value of the subgrade at position 39-0201 on 2004/9/9 with ERES method; (c) back calculation of elastic modulus of the concrete layer of position 39-0201 on 2004/9/9 with ECOPP method; (d) back calculation of k-value of the subgrade at position 39-0201 on 2004/9/9 with ECOPP method
Fig.8  Back calculation results in Ohio. (a) back calculation of average elastic modulus in Ohio at different position during research period; (b) back calculation of average k-value in Ohio at different position during research period
Fig.9  Back calculation results in Utah. (a) Back calculation of average elastic modulus in Utah at different position during research period; (b) back calculation of average k-value in Utah at different position during research period
Fig.10  Back calculation results in North Carolina. (a) Back calculation of average elastic modulus in North Carolina at different position during research period; (b) back calculation of average k-value in North Carolina at different position during research period
Fig.11  Back calculation results in Arizona. (a) Back calculation of average elastic modulus in Arizona at different position during research period; (b) back calculation of average k-value in Arizona at different position during research period
Fig.12  The comparison between the road test results and the MEPDG software calculation results. (a) The comparison the IRI from MEPDG calculation and road test in Ohio; (b) the comparison the IRI from MEPDG calculation and road test in North Carolina
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