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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (1) : 112-120
Chloride binding and time-dependent surface chloride content models for fly ash concrete
1. Department of Civil Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110, India
2. Structural Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India
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Corrosion of embedded rebars is a classical deterioration mechanism of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride environments. Such environments can be attributed to the presence of seawater, deicing or sea-salts, which have high concentrations of chloride ion. Chloride ingress into concrete, essential for inducing rebar corrosion, is a complex interaction between many physical and chemical processes. The current study proposes two chloride ingress parameter models for fly ash concrete, namely: 1) surface chloride content under tidal exposure condition; and 2) chloride binding. First, inconsistencies in surface chloride content and chloride binding models reported in literature, due to them not being in line with past research studies, are pointed out. Secondly, to avoid such inconsistencies, surface chloride content and chloride binding models for fly ash concrete are proposed based upon the experimental work done by other researchers. It is observed that, proposed models are simple, consistent and in line with past research studies reported in literature.

Keywords binding isotherms      chloride ingress      concrete      fly ash      surface chloride content     
Corresponding Authors: B. N. RAO   
Online First Date: 07 December 2015    Issue Date: 19 January 2016
 Cite this article:   
S. MUTHULINGAM,B. N. RAO. Chloride binding and time-dependent surface chloride content models for fly ash concrete[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2016, 10(1): 112-120.
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Fig.1  Plot of Song et al. [7] and Chalee et al. [16] time-dependent Cs models
C s (t in years) Reference
2   t kg/m3, 2 t kg/m3 Amey at al. [25]
0.38   t 0.37 % wt. of concrete Costa and Appleton [26]
3.0431+ 0.6856 ln ( t ) % wt. of cement Song et al. [7]
[ 0.379 ( w / b ) + 2.064 ] ln ( t ) % wt. of binder Chalee et al. [16]
0.26 [ ln ( 3.77 t + 1 ) ] + 1.38 % wt. of binder Pack et al. [27]
10 [ 0.841 ( w / b ) 0.213 ] + 2.11 t % wt. of binder Petcherdchoo [17]
Tab.1  Time-dependent surface chloride content ( C s ) models reported in literature for tidal exposure condition
Fig.2  Surface chloride profiles from the developed model VS other models for the real field data of Bentz et al. [28]
Fig.3  Nonlinear binding and binding capacity based on Ishida et al. [20]
specimen ψ α L ψ β L ψ α F ψ β F
0% fly ash 34.27 2.83 8.20 0.32
25% fly ash 37.17 2.24 10.12 0.38
Tab.2  Binding isotherms constants for 0 and 25 % fly ash at 0.50 water/binder ratio based on Zibara [23]
Fig.4  “Best fit” binding isotherms for 0 and 25 % fly ash at 0.50 water/binder ratio based on Zibara [23]
Binding isotherm constant η 1 η 2
ψ α L 34.2715 0.1161
ψ β L 2.8349 − 0.0237
ψ α F 8.2051 0.0767
ψ β F 0.3237 0.0022
Tab.3  Values of η 1 and η 2 for binding isotherms constants based on Zibara [ 23]
f/% binding isotherm constant
ψ α L (m3 of pore solution/m3 of concrete) ψ β L (m3 of pore solution/kg) ψ α F (m3 of pore solution/m3 of concrete) ψ β F
0 0.4621 0.0799 1.2354 0.3237
15 0.4855 0.0699 1.2486 0.3573
25 0.5012 0.0632 1.2483 0.3796
35 0.5169 0.0565 1.2408 0.4021
50 0.5404 0.0465 1.2158 0.4357
Tab.4  Idealized values of binding isotherms constants for concrete
Fig.5  Binding isotherms constants value at different fly ash replacement level
Fig.6  Chloride binding isotherms at different fly ash replacement level. (a) Langmuir; (b) Freundlich
Fig.7  Predicted chloride profiles from the developed model vs. other experimental chloride profiles
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