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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front Struc Civil Eng    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (4) : 429-445     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-013-0226-6
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Accelerated engineering properties of high and low volume fly ash concretes reinforced with glued steel fibers
Vallarasu Manoharan SOUNTHARARAJAN, Dr. Anandan SIVAKUMAR()
Structural Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, India
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Abstract

The present study focuses on the improvement of pozzolanic reaction of fly ash particles with the cement hydration products. Low and high volume fly ash concrete mixtures were studied systematically with the addition of accelerating admixtures and accelerated curing of the concrete specimens in a steam chamber for 18 h at 75°C. Also, the reinforcing effects of glued steel fibers addition on the compressive and flexural performance of fly ash concrete were investigated. The test results indicated that the addition of accelerator improved the rate of hardening and the inclusion of steel fibers provided higher flexural performance. Also, it can be noted that the high volume fly ash (50%) addition in concrete showed a reduction in strength; however, the addition of accelerator has compensated the deceleration in strength gain. The proper selection of concrete ingredients, addition of accelerator and initial steam curing for 18 h showed better improvement on the engineering properties in fly ash concrete. A maximum increase (41.7%) in compressive strength of fly ash concrete around 52.90 MPa was noticed for 25% fly ash substitution and 1.5% steel fibers addition. Dynamic elastic modulus was also calculated in loaded concrete specimen using ultrasonic pulse velocity test and showed a good agreement with the experimental value.

Keywords fly ash      pozzolanic index      steam curing      superplasticizer      accelerator      steel fibres      elastic modulus     
Corresponding Authors: SIVAKUMAR Dr. Anandan,Email:sivakumara@vit.ac.in   
Issue Date: 05 December 2013
 Cite this article:   
Vallarasu Manoharan SOUNTHARARAJAN,Dr. Anandan SIVAKUMAR. Accelerated engineering properties of high and low volume fly ash concretes reinforced with glued steel fibers[J]. Front Struc Civil Eng, 2013, 7(4): 429-445.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-013-0226-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2013/V7/I4/429
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Vallarasu Manoharan SOUNTHARARAJAN
Dr. Anandan SIVAKUMAR
properties/%fly ashclass-Fcement
SiO259.320.81
Al2O334.64.79
Fe2O35.873.2
CaO1.0263.9
MgO0.382.61
SO30.11.39
Na2O1.280.18
K2O0.010.79
Cl ˉ0.490.002
Loss on ignition1.90.98
Insoluble residue-0.12
Moisture content0.73-
Specific gravity2.243.17
Tab.1  Chemical composition of cementitious materials used in the study
fiber typerelative density/(kN·m-3)length/mmdiameter/mml/d ratiotensile strength/MPafailure strain/%
glued steel fibers7.65350.57017003 to 5
Tab.2  Properties of glued steel fibers (GSF) used in the study
Fig.1  Snap shot of glued steel fibers (GSF) used in the study
mix Idw/b ratioF/c ratioB/TA ratiodosage of steel fibers %(Vf)accelerator %PCE%fly ash/%cementfly ashfine aggregate/(kg·m-3)coarse aggregatewater
MC10.30.60.26001047306721113142
MC1A0.30.60.26011047306721113142
MFC10.30.60.26001253551186721113142
MFC1A0.30.60.26011253551186721113142
MSF10.30.60.260.511253551186721113142
MSF20.30.60.26111253551186721113142
MSF30.30.60.261.511253551186721113142
MFC20.30.60.26001.5502372366721113142
MFC2A0.30.60.26011.5502372366721113142
MSF70.30.60.260.511.5502372366721113142
MSF80.30.60.26111.5502372366721113142
MSF90.30.60.261.511.5502372366721113142
MD10.30.80.24001047308151019142
MD1A0.30.80.24011047308151019142
MFD10.30.80.24001253551188151019142
MFD1A0.30.80.24011253551188151019142
MSF40.30.80.240.511253551188151019142
MSF50.30.80.24111253551188151019142
MSF60.30.80.241.511253551188151019142
MFD20.30.80.24001.5502372368151019142
MFD2A0.30.80.24011.5502372368151019142
MSF100.30.80.240.511.5502372368151019142
MSF110.30.80.24111.5502372368151019142
MSF120.30.80.241.511.5502372368151019142
Tab.3  Various concrete mixture proportions used in the study
Fig.2  Steam curing chamber for concrete specimens used in the study
Fig.3  Test set up for flexural testing machine
Fig.4  Loading procedure to obtain residual load
Fig.5  Snapshot of ultrasonic pulse velocity test set up
Fig.6  Test set up for determination of Young’s modulus of concrete
Fig.7  Test setup for measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity in loaded concrete specimen
mixIdfly ash/%cement/%accelerator/%fly ash/gmscement/gmsfine aggregate/gmsPAI index at 7 daysPAI index at 28 days
CM01000025075034.6751.05
CFM1257506218875028.0845.35
CFM2257516218875035.8152.16
CFM35050012512575024.9538.23
CFM45050112512575029.1243.28
Tab.4  Pozzolanic activity index for various fly ash cement mortar proportions (1:3)
Fig.8  (a) Slump test results for various concrete mixes at / ratio 0.6 with 25% of fly ash; (b) slump test results for various concrete mixes at / ratio 0.8 with 25% of fly ash; (c) slump test results for various concrete mixes at / ratio 0.6 with 50% of fly ash; (d) slump test results for various concrete mixes at / ratio 0.8 with 50% of fly ash
mix Idw/b ratioF/c ratioB/TA ratiodosage of steelfibers % (Vf)accelerator/%fly ash/%compressive strength /MPasplit tensile strength (MPa) at 28 days
PCE/%7 days28 days56 days
MC10.30.60.26001024.5037.5042.403.72
MC1A0.30.60.26011035.3041.2043.503.85
MFC10.30.60.260012527.3041.6044.103.89
MFC1A0.30.60.260112533.1046.9049.703.95
MSF10.30.60.260.5112541.2050.9052.304.10
MSF20.30.60.261112542.3051.2053.404.35
MSF30.30.60.261.5112546.1052.9054.004.94
MFC20.30.60.26001.55027.3039.4041.303.79
MFC2A0.30.60.26011.55027.3039.4041.303.85
MSF70.30.60.260.511.55034.1046.0048.903.93
MSF80.30.60.26111.55021.9037.8041.603.64
MSF90.30.60.261.511.55034.5043.1044.204.12
MD10.30.80.24001022.8036.4041.303.62
MD1A0.30.80.24011035.6041.4043.703.74
MFD10.30.80.240012524.8037.5041.803.78
MFD1A0.30.80.240112531.2044.5043.703.99
MSF40.30.80.240.5112534.5043.4045.804.15
MSF50.30.80.241112538.9044.5047.104.21
MSF60.30.80.241.5112540.3048.3051.404.76
MFD20.30.80.24001.55020.4034.1037.103.51
MFD2A0.30.80.24011.55029.5038.2042.103.75
MSF100.30.80.240.511.55024.5039.4043.503.92
MSF110.30.80.24111.55025.7043.4044.703.98
MSF120.30.80.241.511.55033.7044.8045.304.01
Tab.5  Compressive strength results for various concrete mixes
Fig.9  (a) Compressive strength of various concretes without steel fibers and accelerator; (b) compressive strength of various concretes containing 1% accelerator; (c) compressive strength of various concretes containing 25% of fly ash and different percentage of steel fibers; (d) compressive strength of various concretes containing 50% of fly ash and different percentage of steel fibers
Fig.10  (a) Split tensile strength of various concretes containing 25% and 50% of fly ash; (b) split tensile strength of various concretes containing 25% and 50% of fly ash with 1% accelerator; (c) split tensile strength of various concretes containing 25% fly ash, varying steel fiber dosage and 1% accelerator; (d) split tensile strength of various concretes containing 50% of fly ash, varying steel fiber dosage and 1% accelerator
mix Idfly ash/%dosage of steel fibers/% (Vf)accelerator/%flexural strength/MParesidual load/kNresidual flexural strength ratio/MPaflexural strength/MParesidual load/kNresidual flexural strength ratio
7 days7 days7 days28 days28 days28 days
MC10004.05005.1800
MC1A0014.28005.6300
MFC125004.320.05.4000
MFC1A25014.41005.6300
MSF1250.514.232.600.285.854.80.37
MSF225114.734.300.416.307.60.54
MSF3251.514.955.700.526.9810.50.68
MFC250003.83004.2800
MFC2A50014.05005.1800
MSF7500.514.142.200.245.724.200.33
MSF850114.283.300.355.856.200.48
MSF9501.514.504.300.436.087.000.52
MD10003.60005.1800
MD1A25013.92004.5000
MFD125003.83004.7300
MFD1A25014.23004.9500
MSF4250.514.192.500.275.183.600.31
MSF525114.552.900.295.636.000.48
MSF6251.514.914.400.45.858.100.62
MFD250004.50004.7300
MFD2A50014.28005.1800
MSF10500.514.142.000.225.404.400.37
MSF1150114.232.400.255.184.600.40
MSF12501.514.732.900.285.856.000.46
Tab.6  Variation of flexural strength and equivalent flexural strength of concrete
Fig.11  (a) Flexural strength of various concretes containing 25% and 50% of fly ash; (b) flexural strength of various concretes containing 25% and 50% of fly ash and 1% of accelerator; (c) flexural strength of various concretes containing 25% of fly ash, varying steel fiber dosage and 1% accelerator; (d) flexural strength of various concretes containing 50% of fly ash, varying steel fiber dosage and 1% accelerator; (e) snapshot of effective crack bridging of steel fibers at 1.5%
mix Idultrasonic pulse velocity (km/s) and rating (IS 13311 Part 1)
1 dayrating7 daysrating28 daysrating56 daysrating
MC13.6Good3.75good4.20good4.50good
MC1A3.63Good3.80good4.10good4.30good
MFC13.70good3.85good4.51excellent4.53excellent
MFC1A3.54good3.63good4.25good4.32good
MSF13.48good3.51good4.28good4.51excellent
MSF23.67good3.78good4.51excellent4.52excellent
MSF33.73good3.72good4.29good4.51excellent
MFC23.70good3.89good4.25good4.52excellent
MFC2A3.53good3.67good4.31good4.40good
MSF73.58good3.94good4.31good4.23good
MSF83.65good3.80good4.27good4.43good
MSF93.72good3.90good4.32good4.51excellent
MD13.60good3.70good3.90good4.30good
MD1A3.50good3.81good4.3good4.62excellent
MFD13.61good3.78good3.97good4.21good
MFD1A3.80good3.91good4.10good4.20good
MSF43.67good3.89good3.98excellent4.51excellent
MSF53.50good3.62good3.78good4.10good
MSF63.64good3.90good4.10good4.53excellent
MFD23.55good3.74good4.52excellent4.13good
MFD2A3.60good3.80good4.51excellent4.51excellent
MSF103.50good3.40good4.10good4.00good
MSF113.70good3.90good4.20good4.20good
MSF123.50good3.50good4.31good4.10good
Tab.7  Ultrasonic pulse velocity for various mixture proportions
Fig.12  (a) UPV test values of various concretes for / ratio 0.6 at different curing days; (b) UPV test values of various concretes for / ratio 0.8 at different curing days
mix IdYoung's Modulus (GPa)UPV (km/sec) and dynamic modulus of elasticity/GPa
28 days1 days7 days28 days56 days
MC137.263.6018.663.7520.254.2425.894.5029.16
MC1A38.503.7019.713.8521.344.3026.634.4528.52
MFC136.703.5418.053.6318.974.2526.014.3226.87
MFC1A38.123.4817.443.5117.744.2826.384.2125.52
MSF139.453.6719.403.7820.584.2325.774.3927.75
MSF241.933.3616.263.7219.934.2926.504.5129.29
MSF343.503.7019.713.8921.794.2526.014.2325.77
MFC235.403.6118.773.8521.344.1024.214.2025.40
MFC2A35.703.7420.143.517.643.9021.904.0023.04
MSF738.103.5317.943.6719.404.3126.754.4027.88
MSF837.783.5818.463.9422.354.326.634.1224.44
MSF939.453.6519.183.8020.794.2726.344.4328.26
MD134.083.7219.933.9021.904.3226.874.5029.16
MD1A36.543.6519.183.8020.794.0023.044.1024.21
MFD138.453.6018.663.7019.713.9021.904.2025.40
MFD1A39.653.5418.053.8020.793.8521.344.0023.04
MSF440.233.5017.643.8120.904.2025.434.6230.74
MSF542.183.6118.773.7820.584.0824.014.2025.40
MSF642.973.8020.793.9122.014.1025.324.2125.52
MFD237.413.6719.403.8921.794.3927.834.4027.88
MFD2A38.993.8421.233.9222.134.1025.404.3026.63
MSF1039.433.5017.643.6218.873.7823.454.1024.21
MSF1136.893.6419.083.9021.904.1023.984.3226.87
MSF1237.463.5518.153.7420.143.9823.324.1324.56
Tab.8  Young’s modulus of elasticity and dynamic elastic modulus values for various concrete mixes
Fig.13  (a) Variation of Young’s modulus of concrete for / ratio 0.6 at 28 days; (b) variation of Young’s modulus of concrete for / ratio 0.8 at 28 days
Fig.14  (a) Dynamic elastic modulus of concrete for / ratio 0.6 at 28 days; (b) dynamic elastic modulus of concrete for / ratio 0.6 at 28 days
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