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Frontiers of Materials Science

Front Mater Sci    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (1) : 28-39     DOI: 10.1007/s11706-013-0190-z
Influence of service temperature on tribological characteristics of self-lubricant coatings: A review
Jun-Feng YANG1, Yan JIANG1, Jens HARDELL2, Braham PRAKASH2, Qian-Feng FANG1()
1. Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China; 2. Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Lule? University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lule?, Sweden
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Self-lubricating coatings have been widely used to reduce friction in moving machine assemblies. However, the tribological performance of these coatings is strongly dependent on the service temperature. In this paper, an extensive review pertaining to the influence of operating service temperature on tribological performance of self-lubricating coatings has been carried out. Based on the effective lubricating temperature range, the self-lubricating coatings developed in the past have been divided into three groups: low temperature lubricant coating (from--200°C to room temperature), moderate temperature lubricant coating (from room temperature to 500°C) and high temperature lubricant coating (>500°C). Ideas concerning possible ways to extend the operating temperature range of self-lubricating coatings have been presented as follows: hybridized tribological coating, adaptive tribological coatings, and diffusion rate limited solid lubricant coating. In addition, a new self-lubricating coating formulation for potential application at a wide operating temperature range has been proposed.

Keywords temperature      solid lubricant      self-lubricating coating      tribological property     
Corresponding Authors: FANG Qian-Feng,   
Issue Date: 05 March 2013
 Cite this article:   
Jun-Feng YANG,Yan JIANG,Jens HARDELL, et al. Influence of service temperature on tribological characteristics of self-lubricant coatings: A review[J]. Front Mater Sci, 2013, 7(1): 28-39.
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Fig.1  Category of lubricant coatings in terms of materials.
Fig.2  Friction coefficient evolution of MoS based composite coating with temperature decreasing. (Reproduced with permissions from Refs. [,-], Copyright 1993 and 2001 Elsevier)
Fig.3  Service temperature range of polymer, MoS, WS, carbon lubricant coatings, and melting point of In, Sn, Pb metals under atmospheric conditions.
Coating compositionFabrication techniqueTemperature (atmosphere)Friction coefficientDurabilityTest configurationParameters(load, velocity)
Soft metals [3]:
Agion platingRT (air)0.1520 cycles?6.35 coated ball on EN31 steel disc14.7 N0.16 m/s
Pb0.120 cycles
In0.0510 cycles
Ag[16]r.f. sputter773 K (air)0.24>5000 cycles?8 alumina ball on coated disk1 N0.02 m/s
Copper[17]thermionically assisted triode ion platingRT (air)0.08>6 hball on coated disc0.2 N0.04 m/s
Au[18]ion platingRT (air)0.1-440C stainless steel pin on coated disc2.45 N0.025 m/s
Au[19]sputteringRT (vacuum)0.157×103 cycles?4.7 rider on disc2.45 N
Cu–Mo[20]ion beam deposition873 K (air)0.2>3000 cyclesAl ball on coated flat13 N0.001 m/s
MoS2[19]sputteringRT (vacuum)0.05106 cycles?4.7 rider on disc2.45 N
WS2[21]ion beam mixingRT (vacuum)0.012×105 cycles?6.35 SUS440C ball on coated plate4.9 N
MoSx[22]r.f. sputter+ ion bombardmenRT (N2)0.041700 m?5 AISI bearing steel ball on coated disc10 N600 r/min
MoS2[23]TS+ laser processingRT (air)0.06300 cycles?1.5 440C pin on coated disc0.31 N0.02-0.05 m/s
RT (vacuum)0.02>500 cycles
WS2/MoS2[24]r.f. sputteringRT (vacuum)0.032×103 cycles?6 AISI440C ball on coated disc1 N0.0314 m/s
523 (vacuum)<0.03300 cycles
MoS2[25]burnishing333-573 K<0.06-?10 bearing steel ball on coated disc20 N0.04 m/s
Carbon[26]ion beam depositionRT (air)0.11-pin (WC-Co, 6.35 mm) on coated flat5 kgf1 mm/s
Carbon+ Nitrogen[27]IBADRT (air)<0.05-diamond pin (10 μm) on coated disc50 mN50 μm/s
DLC-Cr[28]pulse DC MSRT (air)0.08>500 m?8 Al2O3 ball on coated disc5 N1000 r/min
Carbon[29]MS543 K (air)0.02-0.0370-145 m?6 Steel ball on coated disc10 N0.1 m/s
Carbon-H[30]MSRT (air)<0.2>5000 cyclesSUJ2 ball on coated disc2 N1.0 m/s
PI-4071 polyimide[31]bondingRT (vacuum)0.04>100×103 cycles440C HT stainless steel pin on coated disc9.8 N100 r/min
Polymer[32]multiple graftingRT (air)0.06>20×103 cycles?3 steel ball on coated disc0.3 N0.0043 m/s
Polymer[33]draw down barRT (air)0.07-?6.3 stainless stell ball on coated flat0.245 N0.001 m/s
Polyester[34]sprayingRT (air)0.3-0.4>1000 cyclessteel ball on coated disc10 N0.01 m/s
Tab.1  Tribological characteristics of moderate temperature self-lubricating coatings
Fig.4  Temperature dependence of friction coefficient of MoS burnished lubricant coatings. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2001 Taylor & Francis)
Coating compositionFabrication techniqueTemperature (atmosphere)Friction coefficientDurabilityTest configurationParameters(load, velocity)
ZnO [52]PLDRT (air)0.16-0.341000×103 cycles?3.125 440C steel ball on coated disc1 N0.05 m/s
Oxides [53]:naturally occurring oxide at high temperature866 K-?50 tool steel pin on oxide powder covered flat-
CaF2 [16]r.f. sputteringRT (air)0.4>5000 cycles?8 alumina ball on coated disk1 N0.02 m/s
773 K (air)
CaF2-WS2 [8]PLD773 K (air)0.2510000 cycles?6.35 ball on coated flat0.98 N0.05 m/s
CaSO4 [8]PLD773 K (air)0.1510000 cycles?6.35 ball on coated flat0.98 N0.05 m/s
CaF2-BaF2 [54]bonding773-1223 K0.001-0.002---
CaSO4PLD883 K0.1510000 cycles?6.25 Al2O3 ball on coated flat1 N0.05 m/s
BaSO4 [55]
PbMoO4 [56]PLDRT (air)0.430 min?3 440C stainless steel ball on coated flat1 N0.6 m/s
973 K (air)0.35120 min
Tab.2  Triboogical characteristics of high temperature self-lubricating coatings
Fig.5  Hybridized tribological coating with composite structure or multilayer structure.
Fig.6  Schematic of transformation from BC to HBO through BO.
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