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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2016, Vol. 9 Issue (2) : 259-269     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-016-0618-z
Progress on mid-IR graphene photonics and biochemical applications
Zhenzhou CHENG1,*(),Changyuan QIN1,Fengqiu WANG2,*(),Hao HE3,Keisuke GODA1,4,5,*()
1. Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
2. School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
3. Med-X Research Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200031, China
4. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
5. Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076, Japan
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Mid-infrared (mid-IR) (2-20 μm) photonics has numerous chemical and biologic “fingerprint” sensing applications due to characteristic vibrational transitions of molecules in the mid-IR spectral region. Unfortunately, compared to visible light and telecommunication band wavelengths, photonic devices and applications have been difficult to develop at mid-IR wavelengths because of the intrinsic limitation of conventional materials. Breaking a new ground in the mid-IR science and technology calls for revolutionary materials. Graphene, a single atom layer of carbon arranged in a honey-comb lattice, has various promising optical and electrical properties because of its linear dispersion band structure and zero band gap features. In this review article, we discuss recent research developments on mid-IR graphene photonics, in particular ultrafast lasers and photodetectors. Graphene-photonics-based biochemical applications, such as plasmonic sensing, photodynamic therapy, and florescence imaging are also reviewed.

Keywords mid-infrared (mid-IR)      graphene      lasers      photodetectors      optical sensing and sensors      photodynamic therapy      spectroscopy      fluorescence and luminescence     
Corresponding Authors: Zhenzhou CHENG,Fengqiu WANG,Keisuke GODA   
Just Accepted Date: 25 February 2016   Online First Date: 31 March 2016    Issue Date: 05 April 2016
 Cite this article:   
Zhenzhou CHENG,Changyuan QIN,Fengqiu WANG, et al. Progress on mid-IR graphene photonics and biochemical applications[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2016, 9(2): 259-269.
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Zhenzhou CHENG
Changyuan QIN
Fengqiu WANG
Hao HE
Keisuke GODA
Fig.1  Graphene-based mode-locked pulse laser [28]. (a) Er3+-doped ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fiber laser incorporating a multi-layer graphene mirror as a saturable absorber; (b) measured autocorrelation trace showing a full width at half maximum (FWHM) pulse width of 65 ps. Assuming a sech2 profile, this yields a pulse duration of ~ 42 ps; (c) optical spectrum of the mode-locked laser, showing a mid-IR center wavelength of ~2.78 μm
reference gain medium pulse width peak power center wavelength
Wang et al. [20] Tm-doped fiber 2.3 μs 30 mW 1884 nm
Zhang et al. [21] Tm-doped fiber 3.6 ps 111 W 1940 nm
Ma et al. [22] Tm:CLNGG crystal 729 fs 837 W 2018 nm
Lagatsky et al. [23] Tm:Lu2O3 crystal 410 fs 5.99 KW 2067 nm
Cizmeciyan et al. [24] Cr:ZnSe cyrstal 226 fs 4.60 KW 2500 nm
Wang et al. [25] Tm:YAG crystal 2.25 μs 690 mW 2010 nm
Tolstik et al. [26] Cr:ZnS crystal 61 fs 62.30 KW 2350 nm
Wei et al. [27] Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber 2.9 μs 580 mW 2783 nm
Zhu et al. [28] Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber 42 ps 16.67 W 2784 nm
Tab.1  Performance of mid-IR graphene ultrafast lasers
Fig.2  Schematic pictures showing different working mechanisms of graphene photodetectors. (a) Photovoltaic effect; (b) photoconductive effect; (c) photothermoelectric effect; (d) bolometric effect
Fig.3  Graphene on a silicon suspended waveguide as a photodetector [30]. (a) Schematic picture of the graphene photodetector; (b) dark current and photocurrent measurements under different bias voltages at the wavelength of 2.75 μm
Fig.4  Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) waveguide photodetector [31]. (a) Schematic pictures of the photodetector; (b) scanning electron microscope image of the photodetector. The patterned region (without graphene) shows a clear contrast
reference mechanism responsivity working bandwidth wavelength
Mueller et al. [29] photovoltaic effect 6.1 mA/W 10 GHz up to 6 μm
Wang et al. [30] photovoltaic effect 0.13 A/W 2.75 μm
Cheng et al. [31] photovoltaic effect 4.5 mA/W 2.75 μm
Liu et al. [32] photoconductive effect 1.1 A/W 1 KHz 3.2 μm
Zhang et al. [33] photoconductive effect 0.4 A/W 10 μm
Yao et al. [34] photoconductive effect 0.4 V/W ~6 MHz 4.45 μm
Hsu et al. [35] photothermoelectric effect 7 - 9 V/W ~20 Hz 10.6 μm
Badioli et al. [36] photothermoelectric effect 7.19-9.26 μm
Yan et al. [38] bolometric effect 2 × 105 V/W >1 GHz 10.6 μm
Freitag et al. [39] bolometric effect 6-12 μm
Tab.2  Performance of mid-IR graphene photodetectors
Fig.5  Graphene on a silicon slot waveguide as a photodetector [41]. (a) Schematic picture of the photodetector; (b) absorption simulation of the photodetector. The inset shows energy distributions of different types of waveguides (WGs)
Fig.6  Graphene on a silicon nitride microring resonator [42]. (a) Schematic picture of the resonator; (b) resonance spectra measurements and Lorentzian fittings
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