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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2016, Vol. 9 Issue (3) : 362-376     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-016-0553-z
Linear all-optical signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators
Yunhong DING1(),Haiyan OU1,Jing XU2,Meng XIONG1,Yi AN1,Hao HU1,Michael GALILI1,Abel Lorences RIESGO3(),Jorge SEOANE1,Kresten YVIND1,Leif Katsuo OXENLØWE1,Xinliang ZHANG2,Dexiu HUANG2(),Christophe PEUCHERET4()
1. Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2. Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
3. Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
4. FOTON Laboratory, CNRS UMR 6082, University of Rennes 1, ENSSAT, 22300 Lannion, France
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Silicon micro-ring resonators (MRRs) are compact and versatile devices whose periodic frequency response can be exploited for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we review our recent work on linear all-optical signal processing applications using silicon MRRs as passive filters. We focus on applications such as modulation format conversion, differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) demodulation, modulation speed enhancement of directly modulated lasers (DMLs), and monocycle pulse generation. The possibility to implement polarization diversity circuits, which reduce the polarization dependence of standard silicon MRRs, is illustrated on the particular example of DPSK demodulation.

Keywords linear all-optical signal processing      micro-ring resonator (MRR)      polarization diversity      silicon-on-insulator (SOI)     
Corresponding Authors: Yunhong DING,Abel Lorences RIESGO,Dexiu HUANG,Christophe PEUCHERET   
Just Accepted Date: 19 August 2016   Online First Date: 13 September 2016    Issue Date: 28 September 2016
 Cite this article:   
Yunhong DING,Haiyan OU,Jing XU, et al. Linear all-optical signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2016, 9(3): 362-376.
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Yunhong DING
Haiyan OU
Jing XU
Hao HU
Michael GALILI
Abel Lorences RIESGO
Kresten YVIND
Leif Katsuo OXENLØWE
Xinliang ZHANG
Christophe PEUCHERET
Fig.1  Schematic of a standard add-drop micro-ring resonator
Fig.2  Fabrication process of a standard silicon micro-ring resonator (MRR). (a) E-beam resist spinning; (b) e-beam exposure; (c) developing; (d) ICP etching; (e) e-beam resist stripping; (f) scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of a typical fabricated add/drop MRR
Fig.3  Experimental setup for multiple WDM channels RZ-OOK to NRZ-OOK format conversion
Fig.4  (a) WDM RZ signal spectrum and MRR through transmission; (b) converted WDM NRZ signal spectrum; measured eye-diagrams of (c) single RZ signal, (d) converted NRZ signals and (e) original reference NRZ signal; (f) BER measurements of the converted NRZ channels in single-channel and WDM operation, as well as an electrically generated reference NRZ signal
Fig.5  Experimental setup for simultaneous RZ-OOK to NRZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion
Fig.6  (a) MRR through transmission and spectra of the two-channel input RZ signals and the converted NRZ signals; measured eye-diagrams of (b) input RZ-OOK (single channel), (c) input RZ-DPSK (single channel), (d) demo-dulated signal of the input RZ-DPSK after balanced detection, (e) converted NRZ-OOK (two-channel), (f) converted NRZ-DPSK (two-channel) and (g) demodulated signal of the converted NRZ-DPSK after balanced detection
Fig.7  BER measurements for input RZ-OOK, converted NRZ-OOK, input RZ-DPSK, and converted NRZ-DPSK for both single and two-channel operations
Fig.8  Experimental setup for 640-Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format conversion
Fig.9  (a) Spectra of the original OTDM (blue), wavelength converted RZ (purple), and format converted NRZ signals (green), as well as through transmission of the silicon MRR (dashed black); (b)–(d) optical sampling oscilloscope traces of the original incoherent 640-Gbit/s OTDM signal, 640-Gbit/s wavelength converted RZ signal, and the 640-Gbit/s format converted NRZ signal, respectively; (e) BER results with PRBS length of 27–1 for channel 1 demultiplexed from 640-Gbit/s NRZ with 1 and 4 m DCFs, and a demultiplexed tributary from the 640-Gbit/s wavelength converted RZ signal with 1 m DCF
Fig.10  Experimental setup for MRR based WDM NRZ-DPSK demodulation
Fig.11  Measured transfer functions for the TM mode at the through and drop ports of the fabricated MRR, and measured spectra of the WDM NRZ-DPSK signals, as well as of the WDM AMI and DB signals demodulated in a single MRR
Fig.12  BER measurements for the multiple channel AMI and DB signals demodulated by the MRR, as well as a single channel AMI and DB signal demodulated by the MZDI. The insets show typical eye-diagrams for the AMI and DB signals demodulated by the MRR
Fig.13  Principle of using an MRR for modulation speed enhancement. The method is illustrated with simulated waveforms and eye-diagrams corresponding to a 10-Gbit/s DML driven with a 42.8-Gbit/s signal
Fig.14  (a) MRR through transmission and spectra of a 10-Gbit/s DML operated at 40 Gbit/s before and after the MRR. The insets show the eye diagrams measured directly at the DML output and after filtering by the MRR; (b) BER performance at the DML output (DML, B2B), after the MRR (DML+ MRR, B2B), as well as after different lengths of SSMF
Fig.15  (a) Principle of the UWB generation method; (b) calculated values of the MRR through and drop power coupling coefficients k12 and k22 resulting in monocycle pulses fulfilling the condition A1 = A2 for three electrical driving signal rise times of 50, 100 and 200 ps
Fig.16  Microscope picture of the fabricated coupling-tunable silicon MRR
Fig.17  Measured transfer functions at the through port of the MRR, together with the spectra of the optical NRZ-DPSK signals at 625 Mbit/s for generations of (a) negative and (c) positive polarity monocycle signals; waveform of the generated (b) negative and (d) positive polarity UWB monocycle pulse at 625 Mbit/s
Fig.18  Principle of a Pol-D circuit with a single MRR and two PSRs
Fig.19  (a) Microscope picture of a Pol-D circuit with a single MRR and two asymmetrical DC based PSRs. The inset shows an SEM image of the asymmetrical DC; (b) detailed transmission around the resonance wavelength of 1532.67 nm for TE, TM and 10 randomly chosen input polarization states
Fig.20  (a) SEM image of a fabricated Pol-D circuit. The inset shows an SEM image of the PSR based on a tapered waveguide followed by a 2 × 2 MMI; (b) measured transmission of the Pol-D MRR over a 60-nm wavelength range and (c) details of the transmission around the resonance wavelength of 1546.52 nm for 15 randomly chosen input polarization states
Fig.21  (a) BER measurements for the AMI signal demodulated by the Pol-D MRR with and without the polarization scrambler; eye-diagrams of the demo-dulated AMI signals (b) without and (c) with polarization scrambler, as well as (d) the signal demodulated by a standard MRR with polarization scrambling
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