Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2019, Vol. 14 Issue (1) : 65-75     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-018-0520-z
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Modeling and optimization of an enhanced battery thermal management system in electric vehicles
Mao LI1,2, Yuanzhi LIU1, Xiaobang WANG1,3, Jie ZHANG1()
1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
2. Beijing Institute of Aerospace Testing Technology, Beijing 100074, China
3. School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Download: PDF(737 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

This paper models and optimizes an air-based battery thermal management system (BTMS) in a battery module with 36 battery lithium-ion cells. A design of experiments is performed to study the effects of three key parameters (i.e., mass flow rate of cooling air, heat flux from the battery cell to the cooling air, and passage spacing size) on the battery thermal performance. Three metrics are used to evaluate the BTMS thermal performance, including (i) the maximum temperature in the battery module, (ii) the temperature uniformity in the battery module, and (iii) the pressure drop. It is found that (i) increasing the total mass flow rate may result in a more non-uniform distribution of the passage mass flow rate among passages, and (ii) a large passage spacing size may worsen the temperature uniformity on the battery walls. Optimization is also performed to optimize the passage spacing size. Results show that the maximum temperature difference of the cooling air in passages is reduced from 23.9 to 2.1 K by 91.2%, and the maximum temperature difference among the battery cells is reduced from 25.7 to 6.4 K by 75.1%.

Keywords thermal management      electric vehicle      lithium-ion battery      temperature uniformity      design optimization     
Corresponding Author(s): Jie ZHANG   
Just Accepted Date: 10 May 2018   Online First Date: 04 June 2018    Issue Date: 30 November 2018
 Cite this article:   
Mao LI,Yuanzhi LIU,Xiaobang WANG, et al. Modeling and optimization of an enhanced battery thermal management system in electric vehicles[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2019, 14(1): 65-75.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-018-0520-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2019/V14/I1/65
Fig.1  Battery module model
Level m/(kg?s1) q/(W?m2) b/mm
1 0.0175 220 2.0
2 0.0200 245 2.5
3 0.0225 275 3.0
4 0.0250 295 3.5
5 0.0275 320 4.0
Tab.1  A design of experiments for the three key parameters
Boundary Type
Air inlet Mass flow rate inlet
Air outlet Pressure outlet
Battery cell wall Wall with heat flux
Battery module wall Adiabatic and no-slip wall
Tab.2  Boundary condition types
Fig.2  The temperature distribution of the cooling air
Fig.3  Effects of mass flow rates on the (a) maximum temperature difference and pressure drop, (b) maximum temperature on the battery cell, and (c) passage mass flow rate
Fig.4  Effects of the heat flux on the (a) maximum temperature difference and pressure drop, (b) passage mass flow rate, and (c) maximum temperature on the battery cell
Fig.5  Effects of the passage spacing size on the (a) maximum temperature difference and pressure drop, (b) maximum temperature on the battery cell, and (c) passage mass flow rate
Fig.6  Distributions of the (a) velocity on the mid-plane in the first passage, and (b) passage pressure drop with different passage spacing sizes
Fig.7  Distributions of the (a) passage spacing size, (b) maximum temperature on the battery cell, and (c) passage mass flow rate for M0 and M1
Fig.8  Distributions of the (a) passage spacing size, (b) maximum temperature on the battery cell, and (c) passage mass flow rate for M0, M2, M3, and M4
Cases ΔT a????max ?/K ΔTmax?/K Pressure drop/Pa
M0 23.9 25.3 212.08
M1 85.4 100.6 245.35
M2 10.1 16.1 229.37
M3 4.9 10.5 230.82
M4 2.1 7.6 229.43
Tab.3  Maximum temperature difference of the cooling air among the passages (ΔTa???? max?), maximum temperature difference among the battery cells ( ΔT max?), and pressure drop in different cases
Fig.9  Distributions of the (a) passage spacing size and passage mass flow rate, (b) the air temperature at the passage outlet and the maximum temperature on the battery cell for M4 and M5, and (c) temperature contours in the rear passages in M5
1 Kizilel R, Sabbah R, Selman J R, et al. An alternative cooling system to enhance the safety of Li-ion battery packs. Journal of Power Sources, 2009, 194(2): 1105–1112
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.06.074
2 Lu L, Han X, Li J, et al. A review on the key issues for lithium-ion battery management in electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 2013, 226(3): 272–288
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.10.060
3 Rao Z, Wang S. A review of power battery thermal energy management. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2011, 15(9): 4554–4571
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.096
4 Fotouhi A, Auger D J, Propp K, et al. A review on electric vehicle battery modelling: From lithium-ion toward lithium-sulphur. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 56: 1008–1021
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.009
5 Ling Z, Zhang Z, Shi G, et al. Review on thermal management systems using phase change materials for electronic components, Li-ion batteries and photovoltaic modules. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014, 31(2): 427–438
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.12.017
6 Zhao R, Zhang S, Liu J, et al. A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 299: 557–577
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.09.001
7 Park H. A design of air flow configuration for cooling lithium ion battery in hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 2013, 239: 30–36
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.03.102
8 Giuliano M R, Prasad A K, Advani S G. Experimental study of an air-cooled thermal management system for high capacity lithium-titanate batteries. Journal of Power Sources, 2012, 216(216): 345–352
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.074
9 Rao Z, Wang Q, Huang C. Investigation of the thermal performance of phase change material/mini-channel coupled battery thermal management system. Applied Energy, 2016, 164: 659–669
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.12.021
10 Huo Y, Rao Z, Liu X, et al. Investigation of power battery thermal management by using mini-channel cold plate. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015, 89: 387–395
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.10.015
11 Jarrett A, Kim I Y. Influence of operating conditions on the optimum design of electric vehicle battery cooling plates. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 245(1): 644–655
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.114
12 Liu R, Chen J, Xun J, et al. Numerical investigation of thermal behaviors in lithium-ion battery stack discharge. Applied Energy, 2014, 132(11): 288–297
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.07.024
13 Greco A, Cao D, Jiang X, et al. A theoretical and computational study of lithium-ion battery thermal management for electric vehicles using heat pipes. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 257(3): 344–355
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.02.004
14 Ye Y, Saw L H, Shi Y, et al. Numerical analyses on optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for lithium-ion batteries during fast charging. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, 86: 281–291
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.04.066
15 Qu Z G, Li W Q, Tao W Q. Numerical model of the passive thermal management system for high-power lithium ion battery by using porous metal foam saturated with phase change material. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39(8): 3904–3913
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.12.136
16 Li W, Qu Z, He Y, et al. Experimental study of a passive thermal management system for high-powered lithium ion batteries using porous metal foam saturated with phase change materials. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 255: 9–15
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.01.006
17 Basu S, Hariharan K S, Kolake S M, et al. Coupled electrochemical thermal modelling of a novel Li-ion battery pack thermal management system. Applied Energy, 2016, 181: 1–13
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.08.049
18 Hwang H Y, Chen Y S, Chen J S. Optimizing the heat dissipation of an electric vehicle battery pack. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2015, 7(1): 204131
https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/204131
19 Fan L, Khodadadi J M, Pesaran A A. A parametric study on thermal management of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery module for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 2013, 238: 301–312
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.03.050
20 Zhao J, Rao Z, Huo Y, et al. Thermal management of cylindrical power battery module for extending the life of new energy electric vehicles. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, 85: 33–43
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.04.012
21 Xun J, Liu R, Jiao K. Numerical and analytical modeling of lithium ion battery thermal behaviors with different cooling designs. Journal of Power Sources, 2013, 233: 47–61
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.095
22 Ji B, Song X G, Cao W P, et al. Active temperature control of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Conference (HEVC 2013). London: IEEE, 2013
https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2013.1916
23 Sun H, Wang X, Tossan B, et al. Three-dimensional thermal modeling of a lithium-ion battery pack. Journal of Power Sources, 2012, 206(206): 349–356
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.01.081
24 Sun H, Dixon R. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 272: 404–414
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.107
25 Mohammadian S K, Zhang Y. Thermal management optimization of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module using pin-fin heat sinks for hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 273(273): 431–439
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.09.110
26 Mohammadian S K, Zhang Y. Thermal management optimization of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module using pin-fin heat sinks for hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 273(273): 431–439
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.09.110
27 Ling Z, Wang F, Fang X, et al. A hybrid thermal management system for lithium ion batteries combining phase change materials with forced-air cooling. Applied Energy, 2015, 148: 403–409
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.080
28 Yu K, Yang X, Cheng Y, et al. Thermal analysis and two-directional air flow thermal management for lithium-ion battery pack. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 270(4): 193–200
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.07.086
29 Wang Z P, Liu P, Wang L F. Analysis on the capacity degradation mechanism of a series lithium-ion power battery pack based on inconsistency of capacity. Chinese Physics B, 2013, 22(8): 088801
https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-1056/22/8/088801
30 Vetter J, Novák P, Wagner M R, et al. Ageing mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources, 2005, 147(1–2): 269–281
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.01.006
31 Zhu C, Li X, Song L, et al. Development of a theoretically based thermal model for lithium ion battery pack. Journal of Power Sources, 2013, 223(1): 155–164
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.035
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Wei LIU, Hongzhong QI, Xintian LIU, Yansong WANG. Evaluation of regenerative braking based on single-pedal control for electric vehicles[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2020, 15(1): 166-179.
[2] A. Galip ULSOY. Smart product design for automotive systems[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2019, 14(1): 102-112.
[3] Thiago ANTONINI ALVES,Paulo H. D. SANTOS,Murilo A. BARBUR. An invariant descriptor for conjugate forced convection-conduction cooling of 3D protruding heaters in channel flow[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2015, 10(3): 263-276.
[4] Yimin ZHANG. Reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components, Part II: Case studies[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2015, 10(2): 145-153.
[5] Yimin ZHANG. Reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components, Part I: Theory[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2015, 10(2): 138-144.
[6] Guisheng ZHAI, Masayuki NAKA, Tomoaki KOBAYASHI, Joe IMAE. Towards neutral steer and sideslip reduction for four-wheeled electric vehicles[J]. Front Mech Eng, 2012, 7(1): 16-22.
[7] Guilin YANG, Shabbir Kurbanhusen MUSTAFA, Song Huat YEO, Wei LIN, Wen Bin LIM. Kinematic design of an anthropomimetic 7-DOF cable-driven robotic arm[J]. Front Mech Eng, 2011, 6(1): 45-60.
[8] PU Jinhuan, YIN Chenliang, ZHANG Jianwu. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2008, 3(3): 337-342.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   0
  Discussed