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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front Mech Eng    2013, Vol. 8 Issue (3) : 268-275     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0261-y
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA
Qi WANG, Zhiwei XU(), Qian ZHU
State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
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Abstract

In this paper, the morphing trailing edge is designed to achieve the up and down deflection under the aerodynamic load. After a detailed and accurate computational analysis to determine the SMA specifications and layout programs, a solid model is created in CATIA and the structures of the morphing wing trailing edge are produced by CNC machining. A set of DSP measurement and control system is designed to accomplish the controlling experiment of the morphing wing trailing edge. At last, via the force analysis, the trailing edge is fabricated with four sections of aluminum alloy, and the arrangement scheme of SMA wires is determined. Experiment of precise control integral has been performed to survey the control effect. The experiment consists of deflection angle tests of the third joint and the integral structure. Primarily, the ultimate deflection angle is tested in these two experiments. Therefore, the controlling experiment of different angles could be performed within this range. The results show that the deflection error is less than 4% and response time is less than 6.7 s, the precise controlling of the morphing trailing edge is preliminary realized.

Keywords morphing wing trailing edge      shape memory alloy      digital signal processor      PID algorithm     
Corresponding Author(s): XU Zhiwei,Email:zhwxu@nuaa.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 05 September 2013
 Cite this article:   
Qi WANG,Zhiwei XU,Qian ZHU. Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA[J]. Front Mech Eng, 2013, 8(3): 268-275.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-013-0261-y
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2013/V8/I3/268
Fig.1  (a) Sketch of the airfoil model; (b) 3D model morphing trailing edge structure
Fig.2  The sketch of concentrated forces simplified from aerodynamic loading
Concentrated forceValue/N
F1142.98
F2188.48
F361.54
F4-40.76
F133.685
F227.045
F3-57.395
F4-136.98
Tab.1  Values of concentrated forces
Fig.3  Sketch of SMA model arranged on a single segment
Fig.4  (a) Simulation of deflection upward; (b) Simulation of deflection downward
Fig.5  Sketch of measurement and control system
Range of e valueq value
Deflection upwards0.19°e<0.27°q = 22.5%
0.27°e<0.88°q = 45%
0.88°e<2.67°q = 70%
e2.67q = 95%
Deflection downwards0.19°e<0.31°q = 30%
0.31°e<1.15°q = 37.5%
1.15°e<8.19°q = 45%
e8.19°q = 75%
Tab.2  The relationship between and
Fig.6  The experimental environment and equipment
Fig.7  (a) The wingtip displacement of deflection downwards; (b) The wingtip displacement of deflection upwards
Fig.8  (a) The control effect at 1°; (b) PWM signal pattern in the control procedure
Target deflection angle/(°)Practical deflection angle/(°)Relative error/%Response time/s
Deflection upwards-1-0.973.02.70
-3-2.971.02.70
-5-4.951.02.36
-7-6.970.44.67
Deflection downwards11.044.05.38
33.031.03.08
55.051.03.47
77.040.64.80
Tab.3  The response times and the errors between the practical deflection angles and the target angles
Fig.9  Sketch of integral deflection
Fig.10  (a) The control effect at -3° of integral deflection upwards; (b) The control effect at 3 degrees of integral deflection downwards
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