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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (3) : 510-529     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-020-0671-6
REVIEW ARTICLE
A comprehensive review of renewable energy resources for electricity generation in Australia
Alireza HEIDARI1, Ali ESMAEEL NEZHAD2(), Ahmad TAVAKOLI3, Navid REZAEI4, Foad H. GANDOMAN5, Mohammad Reza MIVEH6, Abdollah AHMADI1, Majid MALEKPOUR1
1. School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
2. Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy
3. Lloy’s Register, Melbourne 3000, Australia
4. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 6617715175, Iran
5. Research group MOBI–Mobility, Logistics, and Automotive Techno-logy Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium; Flanders Make 3001, Haverlee, Belgium
6. Department of Electrical Engineering, Tafresh University, Tafresh 39518-79611, Iran
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Abstract

Recently, renewable energy resources and their impacts have sparked a heated debate to resolve the Australian energy crisis. There are many projects launched throughout the country to improve network security and reliability. This paper aims to review the current status of different renewable energy resources along with their impacts on society and the environment. Besides, it provides for the first time the statistics of the documents published in the field of renewable energy in Australia. The statistics include information such as the rate of papers published, possible journals for finding relative paper, types of documents published, top authors, and the most prevalent keywords in the field of renewable energy in Australia. It will focus on solar, wind, biomass, geothermal and hydropower technologies and will investigate the social and environmental impacts of these technologies.

Keywords renewable energy      hydro energy      wind power      photovoltaic      geothermal      bioenergy     
Corresponding Author(s): Ali ESMAEEL NEZHAD   
Online First Date: 11 June 2020    Issue Date: 14 September 2020
 Cite this article:   
Alireza HEIDARI,Ali ESMAEEL NEZHAD,Ahmad TAVAKOLI, et al. A comprehensive review of renewable energy resources for electricity generation in Australia[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(3): 510-529.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-020-0671-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2020/V14/I3/510
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Alireza HEIDARI
Ali ESMAEEL NEZHAD
Ahmad TAVAKOLI
Navid REZAEI
Foad H. GANDOMAN
Mohammad Reza MIVEH
Abdollah AHMADI
Majid MALEKPOUR
Technology Generation/GWh Percentage
of renewable
generation/%
Percentage
of total
generation/%
Equivalent number of
households powered over
course of the year
Hydro 17747 42.3 7.32 3380371
Wind 12903 30.8 5.32 2457723
Small-scale solar PV 6701 16.0 2.76 1276305
Bioenergy 3608 8.6 1.49 687238
Large-scale solar PV 456 1.1 0.19 86766
Medium-scale solar PV 502 1.2 0.21 95598
Solar thermal 27 0.1 0.01 5143
Geothermal 0.50 0.0 0.00 95
Total 41944 100 17.29 7989239
Tab.1  Renewable energy generation
State Generation/GWh Fossil fuel
generation/GWh
Total renewable
generation/GWh
Penetration of
renewables/%
TAS 11103 817 10286 93
SA 11364 5856 5508 48
VIC 55221 46619 8602 16
WA 19609 17001 2608 13
NSW 64339 56879 7460 12
QLD 60782 57932 2850 5
National 222418 185104 37314 17
Tab.2  Penetration of renewable generation by state
State Hydro/% PV/% Wind/% Bioenergy/% National/%
TAS 85.4 6.9 6.8 0.9 95.9
SA 51.5 10.3 35.2 3.1 53.1
VIC 34.9 17.3 28.0 19.8 20.6
WA 63.5 22.7 9.9 3.9 16.2
NSW 35.3 13.9 19.3 31.5 15.0
QLD 29.6 28.8 0.9 40.7 9.5
Tab.3  Proportional share of different renewable generation techno-logies by state
Fig.1  Number of documents by year.
Fig.2  Documents by author.
Fig.3  Most prevalent keywords.
Id Keywords Occurrences Total link strength
1 Australia 478 990
2 Renewable resource 226 633
3 Renewable energies 212 556
4 Renewable energy resources 324 516
5 Renewable energy 214 490
6 Energy policy 147 422
7 Wind power 156 357
8 Alternative energy 98 311
9 Solar energy 143 292
10 Climate change 108 235
Tab.4  10 most prevalent used keywords
ID Ref. Document title Journal/Conference Citations
1 [13] Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass Renewable Energy 247
2 [14] Design of commercial solar updraft tower systems—utilization of solar induced convective flows for power generation Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 226
3 [15] An overview of biofuel policies across the world Energy Policy 211
4 [16] Fast pyrolysis of oil mallee woody biomass:? effect of temperature on the yield and quality of pyrolysis products Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 173
5 [17] Recent advances with UNSW vanadium-based redox flow batteries International Journal of Energy Research 155
6 [18] Feasibility analysis of stand-alone renewable energy supply options for a large hote Renewable Energy 154
7 [19] Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles Atmospheric Environment 122
8 [20] Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy: the strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric vehicles Energy Policy 113
9 [21] Feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply options for a grid-connected large hotel Renewable Energy 109
10 [22] Emergy evaluation of three cropping systems in south-western Australia Ecological Modeling 108
Tab.5  Top 10 cited published documents in the field
ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA Total
2001 12 6 33 41 15 11 118
2002 23 8 71 107 1 19 22 251
2003 3 134 10 150 246 9 98 14 664
2004 2 235 22 328 300 17 152 33 1089
2005 4 291 35 339 380 13 254 90 1406
2006 10 216 23 195 413 4 200 54 1115
2007 48 779 26 475 1037 25 828 262 3480
2008 278 2890 88 3087 3456 161 2036 2068 14064
2009 803 14008 215 18283 8569 1452 8429 11157 62916
2010 2323 69988 637 48697 16705 1889 35676 22293 198208
2011 6860 80272 401 95303 63553 2475 60214 51667 360745
2012 1522 53961 513 130252 41851 6364 66204 42653 343320
2013 2411 33998 1024 71197 29187 7658 33332 21600 200407
2014 1225 37210 1026 57748 15166 4207 40061 23496 180139
2015 1066 33477 1197 39507 12081 2020 31343 20797 141488
2016 999 29441 1745 34389 12594 2486 26697 24185 132536
2017 1340 32871 1532 37467 11926 1849 23452 26304 136741
Total 18894 389806 8508 537521 217612 30630 329010 246076 1778687
Tab.6  Small-scale PV system
Fig.4  Australian PV installation and total capacity (kW).
Fig.5  Installed PV generation capacity by state/territory.
ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA Total
2014 8 208 3 129 34 5 137 169 693
2015 3 133 1 186 21 6 163 24 537
2016 105 665 6 329 130 18 240 70 1563
2017 144 1377 9 537 371 66 479 164 3147
Total 260 2383 19 1181 556 95 1019 427 5940
Tab.7  PV systems with concurrent battery storage
Fig.6  Share of grid-connected and off-grid installations globally.
# State/Territory Installed capacity
Projects Turbines Total MW
1 SA 19 689 1595
2 VIC 18 602 1250
3 NSW 12 361 668
4 WA 21 308 491
5 TAS 7 124 310
6 QLD 2 22 13
7 Australian Antarctic Territory 1 2 1
8 NT 0 0 0
9 ACT 0 0 0
Sum Australia 80 2108 4328
Tab.8  Installed wind power capacity in Australia
Project State Capacity/MW
Macarthur Wind Farm VIC 420
Snowtown Wind Farm SA 369
Hallett Wind Farm SA 351
Lake Bonney Wind Farm SA 240
Ararat Wind Farm VIC 240
Collgar Wind Farm WA 206
Portland Wind Farm VIC 195
Waubra Wind Farm VIC 192
Musselroe Wind Farm TAS 168
Gullen Range Wind Farm NSW 165.5
Tab.9  Ten largest wind farms in Australia
Fig.7  Percentage of the national wind farm capacity by state.
Wind farm Installed capacity/MW Developer State Expected completion
Mount Emerald Wind Farm 180.5 Ratch Australia QLD Sept 2018
Mount Gellibrand Wind Farm 132 Acciona VIC Mid-2018
Sapphire Wind Farm 270 CWP Renewables NSW July 2018
White Rock Wind Farm (Stage I) 175 Goldwind Australia NSW 2018
Lincoln Gap Wind Farm 212 Nexif Energy Australia SA 2018
Willogoleche Wind Farm 119 Engie SA 2018
Tab.10  Large wind farms under construction and committed during the first half of 2018
Fig.8  Process of heat and power generation in biomass power-plants.
Fig.9  Bio-energy utilization: from main resources to end-users.
Temperature/°C Application
30 Warm water to be used in mining in cold climates, de-icing, fish farming throughout the year
40 Soil warming, heating swimming pools, biodegradation, fermentations
50 Mushroom growing, balneology/therapeutic hot springs
60 Animal husbandry, greenhouses by combined space
70 Refrigeration (lower temperature limit)
80 Space heating, both residential and greenhouses
90 Drying of stock fish, intense de-icing operations
100 Drying of organic materials
110 Drying and curing of light aggregate cement slabs
120 Concentration of saline solution, refrigeration (medium temperature)
130 Evaporation in sugar refining, extraction of salts by evaporation and crystallization, fresh water by distillation
140 Drying farm products, food canning
150 Alumina via the Bayer process
160 Drying of fish meal and timber
170 Heavy water via hydrogen sulfide process, drying of diatomaceous earth
180 Digestion in paper pulp, evaporation of highly concentrated solutions, refrigeration by ammonia absorption
Tab.11  Different direct-use applications of geothermal energy
Project Well name Basin Depth/m Temperature/°C Status
SA0126 Burley 2 Cooper/Eromanga 3705.758 253 Abandoned
WA0576 Leo 1 Canning 2411.3 242 Plugged & abandoned
SA0514 McLeod 1 Cooper/Eromanga 3806.34 229.44 Suspended
WA0576 Leo 1 Canning 2411.3 228 Plugged & abandoned
SA0078 Big Lake 41 Cooper/Eromanga 3005.328 227 Suspended
SA1157 Bulyeroo 1 Cooper/Eromanga 3553.663 222.22 Suspended
SA1523 Habanero 1 Cooper/Eromanga 4420.819 220.56 Abandoned
SA1157 Bulyeroo 1 Cooper/Eromanga 3553.663 220 Suspended
WA0576 Leo 1 Canning 2411.3 220 Plugged & abandoned
SA0622 Moomba 55 Cooper/Eromanga 3107.131 211.11 Suspended
SA0514 McLeod 1 Cooper/Eromanga 3806.34 211 Suspended
SA0066 Big Lake 29 Cooper/Eromanga 3029.102 210 Suspended
SA0078 Big Lake 41 Cooper/Eromanga 3005.328 210 Suspended
SA1131 Big Lake 46 Cooper/Eromanga 3075.432 206.11 Suspended
SA0630 Moomba North 1 Cooper/Eromanga 3101.645 205.55 Suspended
SA1523 Habanero 1 Cooper/Eromanga 4420.819 202.78 Suspended
SA1524 Habanero 2 Cooper/Eromanga 4357.726 202.78 Suspended
SA1133 Big Lake 50 Cooper/Eromanga 3255.264 201.11 Suspended
SA1348 Moomba 79 Cooper/Eromanga 3111.398 201.11 Abandoned
SA1351 Moomba 82 Cooper/Eromanga 3200.4 199.44 Suspended
Tab.12  Data of the 40 wells with the highest temperature drilled in Australia
Project State Location Company Inferred resource (Petajoules)
Parachilina Geothermal Play SA 150 km north of Port Augusta Torrens energy 780000
Olympic Dam Geothermal Energy Project SA Olympic Dam, SA Green Rock Energy 116770
The Cooper Basin Projecs SA Innamincka Geodynamics 230000
Anglesea Geothermal Play VIC Geelong Greenearth Energy 220000
Paralana Geothermal Play SA Flinders Range Petratherm 230000
Wombat Geothermal Play VIC Gippsland Greenearth Energy 3600
Limestone Coast Project: Rendelsham Geothermal Play SA Mt Gambier Panax 17000
Limestone Coast Project: Rivoli-St Clair Geothermal Play SA Beachport Panax 53000
Limestone Coast Project: Penola Geothermal Play SA 40 km north Mt Gambier Panax 89000
Limestone Coast Project: Tantanoola Geothermal Play SA North-west Mt Gambier Panax 130000
Roxby Geothermal Project SA 40 km north Port Augusta Southern old 260000
Tirrawarra Geothermal Project SA Moomba Panax 34500
Frome Project SA Frome Basin Geothermal Resources 84000
Lemont Geothermal Play TAS Midlands
Area
KUTh Energy 260000
Perth Permit WA Metropolitan Perth Green Rock Energy 29960
Geelong Geothermal Power Project VIC Geelong Green Rock Energy 17000
Nicholas-Fingal Geothermal Play TAS Fingal Valley KUTh Energy 101000
Port Augusta Project Area SA Port Augusta Torrens Energy 70.000
Tab.13  Active companies in geothermal energy
Fig.10  Electricity generation in Australia’s national electricity market.
Fig.11  Hydro energy consumption in Australia in 2007 and 2008.
Fig.12  Offshore renewable energy techniques.
Continental Power/(W·m–2) Energy/(GJ·m–2)
Mean 10th percentile 50th percentile 90th percentile
Northern Territory 2069.50 18.07 1029.68 5979.38 65.45
Queensland 4153.19 33.97 2316.85 10679.20 131.35
New South Wales 0.36 0.024 0.19 0.96 0.0011
Victoria and Tasmania 488.93 6.03 378.06 1193.56 15.46
South Australia 317.16 0.43 78.86 1014.65 10.03
Western Australia 6179.39 249.42 7529.65 10679.20 195.43
Tab.14  Total tidal energy which delivered annually on the continent of Australia
Continental Power/(W·m–1) Energy
Mean 10th percentile 50th percentile 90th percentile Mean
Northern Territory 5.32 0.33 2.68 13.09 167.90
Queensland 14.72 3.52 9.03 29.82 442.80
New South Wales 13.61 2.77 7.31 27.19 391.04
Victoria and Tasmania 34.87 4.88 18.22 70.66 1100.80
South Australia 25.51 4.28 15.35 54.96 885.13
Western Australia 26.38 4.65 15.05 56.86 901.44
Tab.15  Total wave energy which delivered annually on the continental of Australia
Year Remarks Ref.
2019 Job creation and investment:
The clean energy Australia reported the renewable investments, projects, and job creation in each year since 2009
[83]
2016 Biofuel development impacts:
This paper investigated the social, economic, and environmental impacts of lignocellulosic biofuel production
[85]
2014 Carbon tax policy:
This paper investigated the impact of carbon tax on the electricity market, generator companies, and prices. The carbon tax increases the cost of conventional power plants, and the payoff of clean power plants
[81]
2013 The psychological and information factors:
This paper investigated the impact of psychological factors and the provision of factual information on public support for the renewable technologies in Australia
[78]
2008 Australian coal industry:
This paper investigated the social and environmental impacts of a transformation of a traditional coal-based energy to a clean and renewable energy on the local coal industry
[77]
2006 Wind Development impacts:
This report investigated the wind energy development impacts on cost, fire risk, efficiency, reliability, noise, birds, biodiversity, landscape, and heritage
[86]
2001 Educational program:
This paper investigated the contributions of the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy to the provision of factual information about renewable energies to the public and to school students
[79]
2000 A postgraduate program:
This paper focused on a postgraduate multidisciplinary program regarding renewable energy technologies, including economic, policy, environmental, and social aspects
[80]
Tab.16  Social and environmental impacts of renewable technology in Australia
ACT Australian Capital Territory
AER Australian Energy Regulator
APVI Australian Photovoltaic Institute
ARENA Australian Renewable Energy Agency
BNEF Bloomberg New Energy Finance
CEC Clean Energy Council
CHP Combined Heat and Power
CRC Cooperative Research Centre
CSP Concentrated solar power
FiT Feed-in-Tariff
GHG Greenhouse gas
IEA International Energy Agency
LCOE Levelized cost of energy
LRET Large-scale Renewable Energy Target
NSW New South Wales
NT Northern Territory
PV Photovoltaic
QLD Queensland
RET Renewable energy target
SA South Australia
SRES Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme
TAS Tasmania
VIC Victoria
WA Western Australia
  
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