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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (1) : 18-26
Soot size distribution in lightly sooting premixed flames of benzene and toluene
Wang LIU, Jiaqi ZHAI, Baiyang LIN, He LIN, Dong HAN()
Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
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The evolution of particle size distribution function (PSDF) of soot in premixed flames of benzene and toluene was studied on a burner stabilized stagnation (BSS) flame platform. The cold gas velocities were changed to hold the maximum flame temperatures of different flames approximately constant. The PSDFs of all the test flames exhibited a bimodal distribution, i.e., a small-size nucleation mode and a large-size accumulation mode. It was observed that soot nucleation and particle growth in the benzene flame were stronger than those in the toluene flame at short residence times. At longer residence times, the PSDFs of the two flames were similar, and the toluene flame showed a larger particle size distribution range and a higher particle volume fraction than the benzene flame.

Keywords premixed flame      soot      particle size distribution function      benzene      toluene     
Corresponding Author(s): Dong HAN   
Online First Date: 20 January 2020    Issue Date: 16 March 2020
 Cite this article:   
Wang LIU,Jiaqi ZHAI,Baiyang LIN, et al. Soot size distribution in lightly sooting premixed flames of benzene and toluene[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(1): 18-26.
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Wang LIU
Jiaqi ZHAI
Baiyang LIN
Dong HAN
Fig.1  Schematic of experimental setup.
Flame Mole fraction Cold gas velocity v 0/ (cm?s1) a Maximum temperature Tm/Kb Stagnation surface temperature T/Kb φ C/O ratio
Fuel O2 N2
Benzene(B) 0.0757 0.3243 0.6000 4.4 1872±86 406 1.75 0.70
Toluene (T) 0.0651 0.3349 0.6000 3.6 1875±87 393 1.75 0.68
Tab.1  Test flame conditions
Fig.2  Measured (symbols) and computed (lines) centerline temperature profiles for the two flames.
Flame Burner-to-stagnation separation Hp/cm Modified residence time t’ (ms, at Hp−0.1cm)
B 0.98 44.7
1.18 59.6
1.37 75.3
1.56 90.5
T 0.92 45.4
1.10 60.4
1.27 75.7
1.42 90.2
Tab.2  Burner-to-stagnation separations and the corresponding particle residence times
Fig.3  Temperature-time histories calculated at two particle residence times.
Fig.4  Measured PSDFs for the two flames (a) The benzene flame; (b) the toluence flame. (Symbols: experimental data; lines: bi-lognormal fits to data).
Fig.5  Measured PSDFs for the two flames at different particle residence times (Symbols: experimental data; lines: bi-lognormal fitting data).
Fig.6  Number density versus particle residence time (Symbols: experimental data; lines: drawn to guide the eye).
Fig.7  Median mobility diameter of the particles in the accumulation mode versus particle residence time (Symbols: experimental data; lines: drawn to guide the eye).
Fig.8  Particle volume fraction versus particle residence time (Symbols: experimental data; lines: drawn to guide the eye).
Fig.9  Calculated mole fraction profiles of (a) acetylene and (b) benzene for the benzene and toluene flames at 1.0 cm.
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