# Frontiers in Energy

 Front. Energy    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (3) : 530-544     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-019-0657-4
 REVIEW ARTICLE
Review on the design and optimization of hydrogen liquefaction processes
Liang YIN, Yonglin JU()
Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
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 Abstract The key technologies of liquefied hydrogen have been developing rapidly due to its prospective energy exchange effectiveness, zero emissions, and long distance and economic transportation. However, hydrogen liquefaction is one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. A small reduction in energy consumption and an improvement in efficiency may decrease the operating cost of the entire process. In this paper, the detailed progress of design and optimization for hydrogen liquefaction in recent years are summarized. Then, based on the refrigeration cycles, the hydrogen liquefaction processes are divided into two parts, namely precooled liquefaction process and cascade liquefaction process. Among the existing technologies, the SEC of most hydrogen liquefaction processes is limited in the range of 5–8 kWh/$kgLH2$: liquid hydrogen). The exergy efficiencies of processes are around 40% to 60%. Finally, several future improvements for hydrogen liquefaction process design and optimization are proposed. The mixed refrigerants (MRs) as the working fluids of the process and the combination of the traditional hydrogen liquefaction process with the renewable energy technology will be the great prospects for development in near future. Corresponding Author(s): Yonglin JU Online First Date: 24 December 2019    Issue Date: 14 September 2020
 Cite this article: Liang YIN,Yonglin JU. Review on the design and optimization of hydrogen liquefaction processes[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(3): 530-544. URL: http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-019-0657-4 http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2020/V14/I3/530
 Tab.1  Number of hydrogen refueling stations in the world in the near future Fig.1  Spin isomers of molecular hydrogen: ortho hydrogen and para hydrogen. Fig.2  Design of a simple Claude cycle. Fig.3  Design of a Kapitza cycle. Fig.4  Design of an LN2 pre-cooled Linde-Hampson cycle. Tab.2  Comparison of basic hydrogen liquefaction cycles Fig.5  Process flow diagram of completed system (reprinted with permission from Ref. [31].) Fig.6  Schematic diagram of super-critical hydrogen liquefaction process (reprinted with permission from Ref. [15].) Fig.7  Overall flow diagram (reprinted with permission from Ref. [35].) Fig.8  Flowsheet for large-scale 100 TPD LH2 plant utilizing MR and four H2 J-B refrigeration cycles (reprinted with permission from Ref. [38].) Fig.9  Flowsheet of proposed process for liquefaction of hydrogen (reprinted with permission from Ref. [39].) Fig.10  Process flow diagram of proposed liquefaction cycle (reprinted with permission from Ref. [44].) Fig.11  Proposed framework for evaluating economic and environmental impacts of a selected hydrogen liquefaction process (reprinted with permission from Ref. [44].) Fig.12  A hybrid of MR hydrogen liquefaction system, MR cascade J-B refrigeration cycle, and an absorption refrigeration cycle (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [45].) Tab.3  Differences between proposed hydrogen liquefaction cycles