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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 207-220
Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide by titanium oxide-based semiconductors to produce fuels
Xi CHEN1, Fangming JIN2()
1. China-UK Low Carbon College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201306, China
2. China-UK Low Carbon College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201306, China; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
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To tackle the crisis of global warming, it is imperative to control and mitigate the atmospheric carbon dioxide level. Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide into solar fuels furnishes a gratifying solution to utilize and reduce carbon dioxide emission and simultaneously generate renewable energy to sustain the societies. So far, titanium oxide-based semiconductors have been the most prevalently adopted catalysts in carbon dioxide photoreduction. This mini-review provides a general summary of the recent progresses in titanium oxide-catalyzed photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide. It first illustrates the use of structural engineering as a strategy to adjust and improve the catalytic performances. Then, it describes the introduction of one/two exogenous elements to modify the photocatalytic activity and/or selectivity. Lastly, it discusses multi-component hybrid titanium oxide composites.

Keywords photocatalysis      carbon dioxide reduction      semiconductors      titanium oxide      renewable fuels     
Corresponding Authors: Fangming JIN   
Online First Date: 15 May 2019    Issue Date: 04 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Xi CHEN,Fangming JIN. Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide by titanium oxide-based semiconductors to produce fuels[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(2): 207-220.
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Fig.1  Devised utilization of CO2 as an ample, low-cost, and readily available C1 platform resource
Fig.2  SEM and HRTEM images of TiO2 nanocrystals with different crystal facets (adapted with permission from Ref. [35])
Fig.3  SEM and bright-field TEM images of TiO2 nanobelts (reprinted with permission from Ref. [36]). Copyright 2010, American Chemical Society) (a) SEM image of the anatase TiO2 nanobelts; (b) bright-field TEM images with SAED patterns of the nanobelt, and the diagram to show the relationship between the incident beam and the nanobelt
Fig.4  Relationship between the bandgap and redox potentials of CRM (reprinted with permission from Ref. [43]. Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society)
Co-catalyst TiO2 type Light source S/% Product Production /(mmol?(g?h)−1) Ref.
1 Ag NPs P25 UV-vis - CH4 (gas)
CH3OH (aqueous)
2 In P25 UV 69 CH4 244.0 [45]
3 Cu P25 UV-rich - HCOOH 25.7 [46]
4 CuO P25 UV - CO 14.5 [47]
5 Cu0 P25 UV - CH4 30.1 [47]
6 Pt-Cu2O P25 UV-vis 85 CH4 33.0 [48]
7 Pt-MgO P25 UV-vis 83 CH4 8.9 [49]
8 Au-Cu P25 Smulated sunlight 97 CH4 2000 [50]
9 Cu-Pt P25 UV-vis - CH4 11.4 [51]
10 Pt-Cu2O TiO2 NCs UV 97 CH4 1.4 [52]
11 Au-Cu SrTiO3/TiO2 UV-vis - CH4 421.2 [53]
12 Cu-Pt TiO2 NTAs Simulated sunlight - CH4 0.6 [54]
13 Au TiO2 NTAs Simulated sunlight - CH4 58.5 [55]
14 Ru TiO2 NTAs Simulated sunlight - CH4 26.4 [55]
15 Zn-Pd TiO2 NTAs Simulated sunlight - CH4 26.8 [55]
16 Ag-Pd N-doped TiO2 NSs Simulated sunlight - CH4 79.0 [56]
17 Cu-In P25 UV 99 CO 6.5 [58]
18 Ni-In P25 UV 99.7 CO 12.0 [59]
19 Au-In P25 UV 99 CO 9.0 [57]
20 Cu-In TiO2 NPs UV 92
21 Cu-V P25 & PU Visible - CH4
Tab.1  Summary of reviewed papers using co-catalysts to modify TiO2
Fig.5  Proposed reaction pathways for the selective photoreduction of CO2 into different products in gas and liquid phase respectively (adapted with permission from Ref. [44]. Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry)
Fig.6  Synthesis method to prepare CuO-TiO2 hollow microsphere (reprinted with permission from Ref. [47]. Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society)
Fig.7  Schematic diagrams of different reaction modes for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 (reprinted with permission from Ref. [49]. Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society))
Fig.8  Proposal mechanism to explain the different product distribution under different types of light sources using AuCu/TiO2 catalyst for photoreduction of CO2 by water (reprinted with permission from Ref. [50]. Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society)
Fig.9  Optimization, recycling tests and XRD analysis of Ag-Pd/TiO2 nanosheets
Fig.10  Band structure of RuRe/TiO2/g-C3N4 hybrid nanosheets (reprinted with permission from Ref. [69]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society)
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