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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 296-306     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0605-8
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Powertrain control of a solar photovoltaic-battery powered hybrid electric vehicle
P. PADMAGIRISAN(), V. SANKARANARAYANAN
Control Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, India
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Abstract

This paper proposes a powertrain controller for a solar photovoltaic battery powered hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The main objective of the proposed controller is to ensure better battery management, load regulation, and maximum power extraction whenever possible from the photovoltaic panels. The powertrain controller consists of two levels of controllers named lower level controllers and a high-level control algorithm. The lower level controllers are designed to perform individual tasks such as maximum power point tracking, battery charging, and load regulation. The perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is used for extracting maximum power from solar photovoltaic panels while the battery charging controller is designed using a PI controller. A high-level control algorithm is then designed to switch between the lower level controllers based on different operating conditions such as high state of charge, low state of charge, maximum battery current, and heavy load by respecting the constraints formulated. The developed algorithm is evaluated using theoretical simulation and experimental studies. The simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed technique.

Keywords battery management system      hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)      maximum power point tracking (MPPT)      solar photovoltaic     
Corresponding Authors: P. PADMAGIRISAN   
Online First Date: 16 January 2019    Issue Date: 04 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
P. PADMAGIRISAN,V. SANKARANARAYANAN. Powertrain control of a solar photovoltaic-battery powered hybrid electric vehicle[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(2): 296-306.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-018-0605-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2019/V13/I2/296
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V. SANKARANARAYANAN
Fig.1  Block diagram representation of the system
Fig.2  Electrical circuit model with differentiated individual subsystem
Fig.3  Block diagram representation of powertrain control of the proposed system
Fig.4  Flowchart of high-level control algorithm
Fig.5  Simulation results depicting the system performance in all operating stages
Parameter Symbol Value
Maximum power/W Pm 100.08
Open circuit voltage/V Voc 22.3
Short circuit current/A Isc 6.10
Maximum power voltage/V Vmp 18
Maximum power current/A Imp 5.56
Number of series solar cells Ns 36
Number of parallel solar cells Np 2
Tab.1  Specification of individual solar PV module at STC
Fig.6  Controller interfaced with current and voltage sensors
Fig.7  Experimental setup with loading arrangement
Parameter Symbol Value
Maximum power/W Pm 300.24
Total open circuit voltage/V Voc 66.9
Total short circuit current/A Isc 6.10
Maximum power voltage/V Vmp 54
Maximum power current/A Imp 5.56
Number of series connected solar modules NS 3
Number of parallel connected solar modules NP 1
Tab.2  Specification of solar PV array at STC
Parameter Value
Battery capacity/Ah 20
Battery voltage/V 12
Total battery voltage (4 nos)/V 48
Tab.3  Specification of lead-acid battery
Fig.8  Experimental results depicting the system performance in all operating stages
C1, C2 Capacitance of buck converter-I and II respectively
Cbatt Internal capacitance of the battery
Cpv Capacitance of solar PV array
E Internal potential of the battery
ibatt Current through the battery
iCT Charging threshold limit of battery current
iDT Discharging threshold limit of battery current
iL1, iL2 Current through the Inductor L1 and L2 respectively
ipv Short circuit current of solar PV array
L1, L2 Inductance of buck converter-I and II respectively
R1, R2 Internal resistances of the battery
SOC State of charge of battery
u1, u2 Control signal of buck converter-I and II respectively
V0 Load voltage
Vbatt Voltage across the battery
Vpv Voltage of solar PV array
ZL Load impedance
  
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