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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 269-283     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0573-z
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Optimal design and development of PV-wind-battery based nano-grid system: A field-on-laboratory demonstration
B. TUDU(), K. K. MANDAL, N. CHAKRABORTY
Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098, India
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Abstract

The present paper has disseminated the design approach, project implementation, and economics of a nano-grid system. The deployment of the system is envisioned to acculturate the renewable technology into Indian society by field-on-laboratory demonstration (FOLD) and “bridge the gaps between research, development, and implementation.” The system consists of a solar photovoltaic (PV) (2.4 kWp), a wind turbine (3.2 kWp), and a battery bank (400 Ah). Initially, a prefeasibility study is conducted using the well-established HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA. The feasibility study indicates that the optimal capacity for the nano-grid system consists of a 2.16 kWp solar PV, a 3 kWp wind turbine, a 1.44 kW inverter, and a 24 kWh battery bank. The total net present cost (TNPC) and cost of energy (COE) of the system are US$20789.85 and US$0.673/kWh, respectively. However, the hybrid system consisting of a 2.4 kWp of solar PV, a 3.2 kWp of wind turbine, a 3 kVA of inverter, and a 400 Ah of battery bank has been installed due to unavailability of system components of desired values and to enhance the reliability of the system. The TNPC and COE of the system installed are found to be US$20073.63 and US$0.635/kWh, respectively and both costs are largely influenced by battery cost. Besides, this paper has illustrated the installation details of each component as well as of the system. Moreover, it has discussed the detailed cost breakup of the system. Furthermore, the performance of the system has been investigated and validated with the simulation results. It is observed that the power generated from the PV system is quite significant and is almost uniform over the year. Contrary to this, a trivial wind velocity prevails over the year apart from the month of April, May, and June, so does the power yield. This research demonstration provides a pathway for future planning of scaled-up hybrid energy systems or microgrid in this region of India or regions of similar topography.

Keywords photovoltaic (PV)      wind      battery      nano-grid      hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER)      field-on-lab demonstration (FOLD)     
Corresponding Authors: B. TUDU   
Just Accepted Date: 14 May 2018   Online First Date: 20 July 2018    Issue Date: 04 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
B. TUDU,K. K. MANDAL,N. CHAKRABORTY. Optimal design and development of PV-wind-battery based nano-grid system: A field-on-laboratory demonstration[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(2): 269-283.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-018-0573-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2019/V13/I2/269
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B. TUDU
K. K. MANDAL
N. CHAKRABORTY
Sl. No. Load type Rating/kW Units Total/kW
1 Fan 0.074 15 1.11
2 Light 0.030 40 1.2
3 Computer 0.150 3 0.45
4 Test benches 0.050 4 0.2
Total load 2.96
Total energy required (2 h per day)/(kWh?d–1) 5.92
Tab.1  Electric load considered for the system
Fig.1  Synthesized load profile of the site for one year
Fig.2  Monthly average wind speed (22°33.7′N, 88°24.8′E)
Fig.3  Hourly wind speed for one year (22°33.7′N, 88°24.8′E)
Fig.4  Hourly solar global horizontal irradiation for one year (22°33.7′N, 88°24.8′E)
Components Capacity
Solar PV/kW 2.16
Wind turbine/kW 3
Battery/kWh 24
Converter/kW 1.44
Tab.2  Optimized system configuration
Fig.5  Hybrid system installed on the rooftop
Fig.6  Structure and layout of the hybrid system
Fig.7  Schematic diagram of the hybrid system
Fig.8  Layout of the PV system
Parameters Values
Make WEBSOL Energy System Ltd.
Module type H300-300WP
Rated peak power (PMAX)/Wp 300
Voltage at maximum power (VMP)/V 36.2
Current at maximum power (IMP)/A 8.3
Open circuit voltage (VOC)/V 44.9
Short circuit current (ISC)/A 8.9
Temperature/°C –40 – 90
Wind load/(km?h–1) Up to 200
Humidity 0%–100%
Type of cell Crystalline silicon
Efficiency of cell 13%–15%
Lamination type Vacuum laminated glass to EVA and tedler
Tab.3  Detailed specification of PV panels
Fig.9  Different components and layout of the wind system
Parameters Specification
General configuration Rotation axis Horizontal
Orientation Up wind
Rotation direction Clockwise facing upwind
Number of blades 2
Rotor diameter/m 4.50
Weight/kg Approx. 70±10%
Performance Peak electrical power/W 3200
1 min max average power output/W 3200(As per IEC 61400 Test Certificate)
Rated wind speed/(m?s–1) 12
Startup/cut in wind speed/(m?s–1) 3.1
Cut out wind speed/(m?s–1) 14–16
Survival wind speed/(m?s–1) 55
Rotor Swept area/m2 15.9
Rotational speed/(r?min–1) 700–800
Blade pitch Fixed
Direction of rotation Clockwise
Over speed control Side furling and dump load
Manual stopping by brake switch installed on the base of the turbine tower
Yaw system Wind direction sensor By tail fin and tail boom
Yaw control Free/passive yaw
Type Mild steel tubular-5” diameter – 20 feet
height on roof top with guy support
Guy material Steel wire rope of 6 mm (for Tubular Tower)
Accessories Suitable turnbuckle, DC lamp, wire clamp, etc.
Tab.4  Detailed specification of wind turbine (whisper 500) and accessories
Fig.10  Battery arrangement of the system
Parameters Values
Voltage configuration/V 48
Power factor/% 80
Battery efficiency/% 85
Battery capacity 48 V 400 Ah
Voltage of each cell (nominal)/V 2
Combination of batteries 24 nos. of 400 Ah
Type of battery Tubular lead acid flooded electrolyte
Positive plate Tubular
Negative plate Pasted flat
Electrolyte Sulphuric acid
Tab.5  Battery specification
Parameters Values
Inverter capacity/kVA 3
Efficiency/% 90
Duty Continuous
Wave form Sine wave
Ambient/°C 60
Protection I/P under voltage, I/P over Voltage,
O/P Overload, O/P Short – Circuit
Relative humidity/% 98
Power device MOSFET/IGBT
Control Pulse width modulation
Power factor 0.8
Tab.6  Inverter specification
Fig.11  Logging and display system
Component Size Capital cost/US$ Replacement cost/US$ O & M cost/(US$·a−1) Other parameters
PV 0.3 kW 537.00 306.00 0.00 [32] Derating factor: 0.9 [32]; Lifetime: 25 years
Wind 3 kW 4350.00 3000.00 114.00 Reference height: 10 m;
Hub height: 28.10 m; Lifetime: 20 years
Battery 1 kWh 150.00 140.00 15.00 Throughput (kWh): 3000.00;
Roundtrip efficiency: 90%; Lifetime: 15 years
Inverter 1 kW 180.00 150.00 3.00 Efficiency: 96%;
Lifetime: 15 years
Tab.7  Cost and other parameters considered for optimization
Fig.12  Power output from PV and wind system in a typical year
Fig.13  Power generated by solar PV and wind system for 24 h in a typical day
Cost summary
(Net present cost)
PV system Wind system Battery Converter Hybrid system
Capital cost 3871.98 4350.00 3600.00 260.01 12082.00
Replacement cost 0.00 1162.49 1650.22 106.42 2919.13
Operation and maintenance cost 0.00 1630.43 5148.71 61.98 6841.12
Fuel cost 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Salvage value 0.00 –687.89 –342.42 –22.08 –1052.39
TNPC 3871.98 6455.03 10056.51 406.33 20789.85
Tab.8  System net present cost and component wise cost breakup (all in US$)
Cost summary
(Annualized cost)
PV system Wind system Battery Converter Hybrid system
Capital cost 270.73 304.15 251.71 18.18 844.78
Replacement cost 0.00 81.28 115.38 7.44 204.11
Operation and maintenance cost 0.00 114.00 360.00 4.33 478.33
Fuel cost 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Salvage value 0.00 –48.10 –23.94 –1.54 –73.58
TAC 270.73 451.34 703.16 28.41 1453.63
Tab.9  System annualized cost and component wise cost breakup (all in US$)
Components Sub-components Cost/W(Rs.) Cost/W(US$)
PV systems PV panels 70.00 1.08
Panel fitment structure 10.00 0.15
Cable and wire 5.00 0.08
Charge controller 3.33 0.05
Total 88.33 1.36
Wind system Aero generator 73.44 1.13
Brake switch, junction box 3.75 0.06
Cable and wire 4.69 0.07
Tower (6.5 m) and support system 12.5 0.19
Total 94.38 1.45
Inverter Per VA 11.67 0.18
Controller and Control panel unit 8.33 0.13
Data monitoring and logging 8.33 0.13
Battery Per Wh 11.46 0.18
Other cost Transport, loading and unloading 1.67 0.003
Civil work, erection and commissioning 11.67 0.18
Total 13.34 0.183
Total project cost 224.17 3.4348
Tab.10  Detailed cost breakup of each component of the installed hybrid system
Cost summary
(Net present cost)
PV system Wind system Battery Converter Hybrid system
Capital cost 4296.00 4640.00 2880.00 540.00 12356.00
Replacement cost 0.00 1241.60 1319.81 220.95 2782.36
Operation and maintenance cost 0.00 1739.97 4120.99 128.78 5989.75
Fuel cost 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Salvage value 0.00 –734.40 –274.18 –45.90 –1054.48
TNPC 4296.00 6887.17 8046.62 843.83 20073.63
Tab.11  Net present cost breakup of installed system (all in US$)
Cost summary
(Annualized cost)
PV system Wind system Battery Converter Hybrid system
Capital cost 300.25 324.29 201.28 37.74 863.56
Replacement cost 0.00 86.73 72.32 12.20 171.25
Operation and maintenance cost 0.00 119.00 281.84 8.81 409.65
Fuel cost 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Salvage value 0.00 –51.33 –18.97 –3.21 –73.51
TAC 300.25 478.69 536.47 55.54 1370.94
Tab.12  Annualized cost breakup of installed system (all in US$)
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