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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 377-385     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0571-1
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Effect of harmonic distortion on electric energy meters of different metrological principles
Illia DIAHOVCHENKO1(), Vitalii VOLOKHIN1, Victoria KUROCHKINA1, Michal ŠPES2, Michal KOSTEREC2
1. Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Sumy State University, Sumy 40037, Ukraine
2. Department of Electric Power Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Košice 04200, Slovakia
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Abstract

This paper deals with the errors of electric energy metering devices as a result of distortions in the shape of the curves of voltage and current load. It is shown and proved that the errors in energy measurements depend on the design and the algorithms used in electricity meters. There are three main types of metering devises having different principles: inductive (electro-mechanical), electronic static, and digital electronic (microprocessor). Each of these types has its measuring features. Some devices take into account all the harmonic distortions and the constant component which occur in the network while others measure the power and energy values of the fundamental harmonic only. Such traits lead to the discrepancies in the readings of commercial electric energy meters of different types. Hence, the violations in the measurement system unity occur, and a significant error can be observed in the balance of transmitted/consumed electric energy.

Keywords current      distortion      electric energy meter      harmonics      power quality     
Corresponding Authors: Illia DIAHOVCHENKO   
Just Accepted Date: 18 May 2018   Online First Date: 20 July 2018    Issue Date: 04 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Illia DIAHOVCHENKO,Vitalii VOLOKHIN,Victoria KUROCHKINA, et al. Effect of harmonic distortion on electric energy meters of different metrological principles[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(2): 377-385.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-018-0571-1
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2019/V13/I2/377
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Illia DIAHOVCHENKO
Vitalii VOLOKHIN
Victoria KUROCHKINA
Michal ŠPES
Michal KOSTEREC
No. harmoic Load voltage Load current cosϕn
КUn/% Un/V ϕUn/( °) КІn/% Іn/A ϕІn/(°)
0 0 22 - 0 0.1 - 1
1 0 220 0 0 15 60 0.50
2 1 2.2 20 2 0.3 35 0.97
3 5 11 5 10 1.5 44 0.78
4 0.5 1.1 7 1 0.15 18 0.98
5 6 13.2 10 12 1.8 25 0.97
6 0.25 0.55 0 0.5 0.075 85 0.09
7 5 11 15 10 1.5 90 0.26
8 0.25 0.55 30 0.5 0.075 87 0.55
9 1.5 3.3 15 3 0.45 64 0.66
10 0.25 0.55 10 0.5 0.075 50 0.77
11 3.5 7.7 10 7 1.05 40 0.87
12 0.1 0.22 0 0.2 0.03 30 0.87
13 3 6.6 0 6 0.9 25 0.91
14 0.1 0.22 8 0.2 0.03 35 0.89
15 0.3 0.66 5 0.6 0.09 45 0.77
16 0.1 0.22 10 0.2 0.03 15 1.00
17 2 4.4 20 4 0.6 60 0.77
Tab.1  Harmonic composition of load voltage and current
Fig.1  Dependences of the instantaneous voltage u(t) and current i(t) values upon time
Meter Equation Р/W Q/var S'/VA S"/VA Acn/VA
Induction (2), (3) 1651.5170 2857.0075 3300.0000 3300.0000 0
(10), (11) 1613.4174 2791.0979 3223.8709
Electronic static with shunt input (19), (20) 1710.0813 2899.1840 3365.9540 3378.1380 286.6529
Electronic static with transformer input (21), (22) 1707.8813 2899.1840 3364.8368 3375.9380 273.5515
Digital (34), (27) 1710.0813 2913.3208 3378.1380 3378.1380 0
(34), (35) 1710.0813 2899.1840 3365.9540 3378.1380 286.6529
Digital meters that calculate power on the 1st harmonic using the Fourier transform (34), (27) 1653.7170 2858.2766 3302.2000 3302.2000 0
(34), (35) 1653.7170 2857.0075 3301.1016 3302.2000 85.1665
Digital meters that calculate power on the first three harmonics using the Fourier transform (34), (27) 1667.1810 2870.3063 3319.3600 3319.3600 0
(34), (35) 1667.1810 2867.5576 3316.9834 3319.3600 125.5863
Tab.2  Calculated results
Fig.2  Block diagram of PWM-inverter fed induction motor
Fig.3  AC/DC/AC rectifier configuration
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