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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 386-398
A systematic approach in load disaggregation utilizing a multi-stage classification algorithm for consumer electrical appliances classification
Chuan Choong YANG(), Chit Siang SOH, Vooi Voon YAP
Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Kolej, Taman Bandar Baru,? Kampar 31900, Perak, Malaysia
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The potential to save energy in existing consumer electrical appliances is very high. One of the ways to achieve energy saving and improve energy use awareness is to recognize the energy consumption of individual electrical appliances. To recognize the energy consumption of consumer electrical appliances, the load disaggregation methodology is utilized. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a load disaggregation methodology that disaggregates the sum of power consumption in a single point into the power consumption of individual electrical appliances. In this study, load disaggregation is performed through voltage and current waveform, known as the V-I trajectory. The classification algorithm performs cropping and image pyramid reduction of the V-I trajectory plot template images before utilizing the principal component analysis (PCA) and the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm. The novelty of this paper is to establish a systematic approach of load disaggregation through V-I trajectory-based load signature images by utilizing a multi-stage classification algorithm methodology. The contribution of this paper is in utilizing the “k-value,” the number of closest data points to the nearest neighbor, in the k-NN algorithm to be effective in classification of electrical appliances. The results of the multi-stage classification algorithm implementation have been discussed and the idea on future work has also been proposed.

Keywords load disaggregation      voltage-current (V-I) trajectory      multi-stage classification algorithm      principal component analysis (PCA)      k-nearest neighbor (k-NN)     
Corresponding Authors: Chuan Choong YANG   
Just Accepted Date: 20 July 2017   Online First Date: 12 September 2017    Issue Date: 04 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Chuan Choong YANG,Chit Siang SOH,Vooi Voon YAP. A systematic approach in load disaggregation utilizing a multi-stage classification algorithm for consumer electrical appliances classification[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(2): 386-398.
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Chuan Choong YANG
Chit Siang SOH
Vooi Voon YAP
Fig.1  Flow chart of the classification algorithm implementation
Appliance types at House #3 (REDD Data Set) Channel label No. of templates
V-I trajectory images
No. of training
V-I trajectory images
Power (maximum)/W
Electronics 06 100 20 1177.3
Furnace 10 100 20 701
Washer dryer 1 (WSD 1) 14 100 20 2492
Microwave (MCW) 16 100 20 1748
Bathroom gfi (BTR) 20 100 20 1632
Refrigerator (REF) 07 100 20 112
Lighting 1 (LIG 1) 11 100 20 358.6
Washer dryer 2 (WSD 2) 13 100 20 2250
Lighting 2 (LIG 2) 17 100 20 383.7
Lighting 3 (LIG 3) 19 100 20 313.5
Total samples 1000
Tab.1  Power consumption values and the corresponding channel label for the 10 appliances chosen for the study
Fig.2  Distribution of power values for the 10 electrical appliances
Fig.3  (a) Furnace (Channel Label 10); (b) washer dryer 1 (Channel Label 14); (c) washer dryer 2 (Channel Label 13); (d) microwave (Channel Label 16); (e) bathroom gfi (Channel Label 20); (f) refrigerator (Channel Label 07); (g) electronics (Channel Label 06); (h) lighting 1 (Channel Label 11); (i) lighting 2 (Channel Label 17); (j) lighting 3 (Channel Label 19)
Fig.4  Overview of the multi-stage classification algorithm
Fig.5  V-I trajectory cropped into four quadrants
Fig.6  Examples of cropped and image pyramid—bottom left quadrant
Fig.7  Examples of cropped and image pyramid—top right quadrant
k value Electrical appliances
1 Bathroom gfi (CH20)
2 – 220 Furnace (CH10)
230 – 500 Washer dryer 2 (CH13)
Tab.2  Result of 1st stage classification
k value Electrical appliances
1 – 100 Electronics (CH06)
110 – 120 Lighting 1 (CH11)
130 – 160 Microwave (CH16)
170 – 180 Lighting 1 (CH11)
190 – 210 Microwave (CH16)
220 –300 Refrigerator (CH07)
310 – 350 Washer dryer 1 (CH14)
Tab.3  Result of 2nd stage classification
k value Electrical appliances
1 – 17 Lighting 3 (CH19)
8 – 100 Lighting 2 (CH17)
Tab.4   Result of 3rd stage classification
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