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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (1) : 42-56     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0486-2
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Evaluation of renewable energies production potential in the Middle East: confronting the world’s energy crisis
Hamid BAHRAMPOUR1, Amir Khosro BEHESHTI MARNANI2, Mohammad Bagher ASKARI3(), Mohammad Reza BAHRAMPOUR4
1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran 14515-775, Iran
2. Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran 19395-3697, Iran
3. Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, Tehran 19395-3697, Iran
4. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Payame Noor University, Tehran 19395-3697, Iran
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Abstract

Oil and fossil fuels, the main source of energy in the Middle East have obviously the most destructive effects on the environment and public health. The developed countries of the Middle East are faced with the crisis and energy security. This paper is about evaluating the energy demand /consumption in the Middle East. First, the position of energy consumption in the world and the Middle East is discussed. Next, the evaluation of the current potential of clean energy production from renewable energies is explained. Finally, according to related maps, charts and information presented for the condition of renewable energy which has been approved by the countries of the Middle East, the greatest places in some countries of this region are introduced and discussed.

Keywords Middle East countries      renewable energy      fossil fuels      energy crisis     
Corresponding Authors: Mohammad Bagher ASKARI   
Online First Date: 25 August 2017    Issue Date: 16 March 2020
 Cite this article:   
Hamid BAHRAMPOUR,Amir Khosro BEHESHTI MARNANI,Mohammad Bagher ASKARI, et al. Evaluation of renewable energies production potential in the Middle East: confronting the world’s energy crisis[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(1): 42-56.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-017-0486-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2020/V14/I1/42
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Hamid BAHRAMPOUR
Amir Khosro BEHESHTI MARNANI
Mohammad Bagher ASKARI
Mohammad Reza BAHRAMPOUR
Fig.1  Net production and export of oil in 2014
Fig.2  GDP in oil exports in 2014
Fig.3  Top five crude oil-exporting countries
Fig.4  Net electricity generation in the Middle East using fossil fuels form 2004 to 2030 (in billion kilowatts- hours)
Fig.5  CO2 released in the Middle East
Countries Dry gas production/(Bcf·d–1)
Iran 12.69
Algeria 7.88
Saudi Arabia 7.59
Egypt 6.07
Qatar 8.64
United Arab Emirates 4.73
Oman 2.40
Bahrain 1.22
Kuwait 1.11
Libya 1.54
Syria 0.60
Iraq 0.11
Jordan 0.02
Israel 0.15
Tunisia 0.35
Yemen 0.05
Morocco 0.01
Sudan <0.01
Tab.1  Dry gas production in the Middle East and North African countries
Fig.6  Word development indicator
Solar Wind Biomass and waste Geothermal Hydro Total
PV CSP
Algeria 7.1 c 25 a 0 a 0 b 0 b 228 a 260.1
Bahrain 5 b 0 0.5 a 0 b 0 b 0 b 5.5
Egypt 15 a 20 a 550 a 0 b 0 b 2800 a 3385
Iran 4.3 c 17 b 91 a 0 b 0 b 9500 a 9612.3
Iraq 3.5 d 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 1864 a 1867.5
Kuwait 1.8 c 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 1.8
Libya 4.8 a 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 4.8
Oman 0.7c 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0.7
Qatar 1.2 c 0 a 0 a 40 a 0 a 0 a 41.2
Saudi Arabia 7(2013) 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 7
Syria 0.84 c 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 1151 c 1151.84
UAE 22.5 a 100(2013) 0 b 3 a 0 b 0 b 125.5
Yemen 1.5 a 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 1.5
Total NOEC 75.24 162 641.5 43 0 15543 16464.74
Djibouti 1.4 c 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 1.4
Israel 269 a 0 b 6 b 27 a 0 b 7 d 309
Jordan 1.6 a 0 b 1.4 a 3.5 a 0 b 10 a 16.5
Lebanon 1 a 0 b 0.5 a 0 b 0 b 282 a 283.5
Malta 12 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 b 12
Morocco 15 a 20 a 291 a 0 b 0 b 1745 a 2017
Palestinian
Territories
1 a 0 b 0 b 0 b 0.023 a 0 c 1.023
Tunisia 4 a 0 a 154 a 0 b 0 b 66 a 224
Total NOIC 305 20 452.9 30.5 0.023 2110 2918.42
TOTAL MENA 380.24 182 1094.4 73.5 0.023 17.653 19383.16
Tab.2  Installed renewable energy capacity in the Middle East and North African countries Unit: MW
Fig.7  Annual average growth rate of electricity production by source in the Middle East and North African countries from 2008 to 2011
No. Name Current size Com. date
1 Saudi Aramco Solar Car Park 10.5 MW 2012
2 Princess Noura Bint Abul Rahman University 25 MW 2012
3 King Abdulaziz International Airport Development Project 5.4 MW 2013
4 KAPSARC Project 3.5 MW 2013
5 KAUST Solar Park 2 MW 2010
6 Pilot Project 500 kW 2011
7 King Abdullah Financial District Project 200 kW 2012
8 Al Khafji Plant 10 MW 2015
9 KAPSARC II Project 1.8 MW 2014
10 Solar Energy Project (Mecca) 100 MW 2018
Tab.3  Solar projects in the KSA
Fig.8  Solar installations in the UAE
Kuraymat Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant Description
Background Technology Parabolic trough
Status Under commissioning
Country Egypt
City Al Kuraymat
Lat/Long location 29.16 degrees north and 31.15 degrees east
Electricity generation 34000 MWh/a (expected)
Company New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA)
Explanation: expected generation is based on solar fraction of anticipated total generation of 852000 MWhy/a.
Construction Break ground January 1, 2009
Start production December 30, 2010
Developer NREA
Plant configuration Solar-field aperture area 131.000 m2
Power block Turbine capacity (Gross) 150.0 MW
Turbine capacity (Net) 150.0 MW
Output type Steam Rankine
Project data Project name Kuraymat ISCC power plant
Plant location Al Kuraymat Egypt
Customer Iberinoo S.A.U Bilbao
End user New and renewable energy authority
Year of operation 2011
Gas turbine Number of units 1
Type: GE Frame 6FA
Fuel Natural gas
Heat recovery steam generator Number of units 1
Type Modular HRSG (hybrid)
Pressure levels 2
Special feature Solar heat as energy source
Steam Steam flow/(kg·s?1) 69.4
Steam pressure/bara 95
Steam temperature/°C 500–560
Tab.4  Overview of Kuraymat Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant (ISCC)
Fig.9  Distribution of meteorological stations in Egypt
Electric/% Gas/% Oil/% Wood/% Solar/%
60 8 (+wood) 31 8(+gas) 1
82 125 (+oil and wood) 152 (+gas and wood) 152 (+gas and oil) 28
70 10 10 5 1
70 5 (+wood and solar) 25 5 (+gas and solar) 5 (+gas and wood)
75 22 (+oil and wood) 22 (+gas and wood) 22 (+gas and wood) 3
Tab.5  Distribution of water heater by type
River Plant Capacity/MW Conditioned to dam erection
Litani Bisri 6 No
Khardah 20 Yes
Safa Zibli 45 No
Richmaya 45 No
Damour 45 No
Ibrahim Hneidi 20 No
Jannah 40 Yes
Assi Yammouneh 10 Yes
Hermel 50 Yes
Bared Boumoussa 12 No
Hamra 16 No
Kasim 5 No
Kottine 175 No
Abu Ali Bchenine 4 No
Tab.6  Future hydropower plants [49]
Fig.10  Density of wind power in Lebanon
Fig.11  Iran’s total primary energy consumption in 2014
Fig.12  Total solar electric generation in Iran from 1998 to 2012
Fig.13  Electricity generations by type in Turkey in 2015
Fig.14  Growth of electricity production by wind in Turkey
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