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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (1) : 114-126     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-017-0483-5
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Experimental study on combined buoyant-thermocapillary flow along with rising liquid film on the surface of a horizontal metallic mesh tube
Manuel J. GOMES, Ning MEI()
Marine Engineering Section, College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
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Abstract

Temperature distribution and variation with time has been considered in the analysis of the influences of the initial level of immersion of a horizontal metallic mesh tube in the liquid on combined buoyant and thermo-capillary flow. The combined flow occurs along with the rising liquid film flow on the surface of a horizontal metallic mesh tube. Three different levels of immersion of the metallic mesh tube in the liquid have been tested. Experiments of 60 min in duration have been performed using a heating metallic tube with a diameter of 25 mm and a length of 110 mm, sealed outside with a metallic mesh of 178 mm by 178 mm, and distilled water. These reveal two distinct flow patterns. Thermocouples and infrared thermal imager are utilized to measure the temperature. The level of the liquid free surface relative to the lower edge of the tube is measured as angle q. The results show that for a smaller q angle, or a low level of immersion, with a relatively low heating power, it is possible to near fully combine the upwards buoyant flow with the rising liquid film flow. In this case, the liquid is heated only in the vicinity of the tube, while the liquid away from the flow region experiences small changes in temperature and the system approaches steady conditions. For larger q angles, or higher levels of immersion, a different flow pattern is noticed on the liquid free surface and identified as the thermo-capillary (Marangoni) flow. The rising liquid film is also present. The higher levels of immersion cause a high temperature gradient in the liquid free surface region and promote thermal stratification; therefore the system could not approach steady conditions.

Keywords rising liquid film      combined flow      thermo-capillary flow      buoyant flow      metallic mesh tube      horizontal tube     
Corresponding Authors: Ning MEI   
Just Accepted Date: 19 June 2017   Online First Date: 27 July 2017    Issue Date: 16 March 2020
 Cite this article:   
Manuel J. GOMES,Ning MEI. Experimental study on combined buoyant-thermocapillary flow along with rising liquid film on the surface of a horizontal metallic mesh tube[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(1): 114-126.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-017-0483-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2020/V14/I1/114
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Manuel J. GOMES
Ning MEI
Fig.1  Schematic of the rising liquid film on the surface of metallic mesh tube
Fig.2  Schematic of the experimental facilities
Fig.3  Rising liquid film flow section
Fig.4  Schematic of the infrared thermal imager position
Thermocouples Horizontal distance/mm Vertical distance/mm
T6 0 6
T7 0 75
T8 30 35
T9 80 35
T10 130 35
Tab.1  Thermocouples position in the liquid relative to the lower edge of the metallic mesh tube
Fig.5  Temporal variation of temperature at different circumferential position on the surface of the tube
Fig.6  Contour of spatial and temporal variations of smooth-tube wall temperature between different circumferential position relative to the lower edge of the metallic mesh tube
Fig.7  Liquid temperature variation with time at 0° of immersion
Fig.8  Contour of spatial and temporal variations of liquid temperature between different thermocouples positions relative to the lower edge of the metallic mesh tube at 0° of immersion
Fig.9  Liquid free surface temperature for 0° of immersion
Fig.10  Average CTD
Fig.11  Combined buoyant and rising liquid film flow
Fig.12  Liquid temperature variation with time
Fig.13  Liquid free surface temperature for 45° of immersion
Fig.14  Liquid free surface temperature for 90° of immersion
θ Level of the liquid free surface relative to the lower edge of the tube
ϵ Emissivity of water
DT Temperature difference/°C
q Heat flux density on the surface of the smooth metallic tube/(W·m–2)
U Power source voltage/V
R Resistance of the metallic tube/W
D Diameter of the smooth metallic tube/m
L Length of the metallic tube/m
T Thermocouple
CTD Circumferential temperature distribution/°C
  
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