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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (1) : 192-211     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-016-0438-2
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Implementation and performance evaluation of advance metering infrastructure for Borneo-Wide Power Grid
Mujahid TABASSUM(), Manas K. HALDAR, Duaa Fatima S. KHAN
Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Kuching 93350, Malaysia
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Abstract

In this paper, a supervisory computer network for Borneo-Wide Power Grid system have been proposed and implemented, which includes a renewable power generation and advanced metering infrastructure. An Internet-based communication network running on multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) has been implemented for a smart power grid, with the addition of the renewable energy monitoring system. The centralized supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) are replaced by a wide area monitoring system(WAMS) comprising of a phasor measurement unit (PMU). The implemented communication network used advanced metering infrastructure that operates on worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) and low power Wi-Fi, which are proposed for the distribution systems of Sarawak Energy. The proposed wide area network (WAN) is simulated using OPNET Modeler and the results are compared with the existing WAN used by Sarawak Energy.

Keywords renewable energy      multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)      power grid      phasor measurement unit (PMU)      supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA)      wide area monitoring system (WAMS)      worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX)      synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)     
Corresponding Authors: Mujahid TABASSUM   
Just Accepted Date: 19 October 2016   Online First Date: 24 November 2016    Issue Date: 16 March 2020
 Cite this article:   
Mujahid TABASSUM,Manas K. HALDAR,Duaa Fatima S. KHAN. Implementation and performance evaluation of advance metering infrastructure for Borneo-Wide Power Grid[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(1): 192-211.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-016-0438-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2020/V14/I1/192
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Mujahid TABASSUM
Manas K. HALDAR
Duaa Fatima S. KHAN
Fig.1  Single line diagram of integrated power grid [8]
Fig.2  Location of PMU and PDC for proposed WAMS for Trans-Borneo Grid [8]
Fig.3  OPNET model of proposed MPLS/IP wide area network for Trans-Borneo Smart Grid
Fig.4  Bintulu wind farm subnet
Fig.5  Limbang PV plant subnet
New Priok substation Semariang substation Mariana substation Town substation
33 kV/11 kV Substation in Kuching, supplying mainly to commercial customers at Golden Triangle of Kuching. The loading is around 3000 kW consisting mainly of hotels such as the Grand Continental Hotel, office and commercial complexes. 5 km long and will be installed with 10 smart meters. 33 kV/11 kV Substation in Kuching. Loading is around 2000 kW made up of mostly residential customers and recreational resorts like Damai and Satubong Resorts. 21 km long and will be installed with 9 smart meters. 33 kV/11 kV Substation in Miri, supplying to a newly developed commercial and residential area to Miri town center. 3.5 km long and will be installed with 4 smart meters. 33 kV/11 kV Substation in Miri, supplying mainly to commercial customers in the Central Business District (CBD). 7.4 km long and will be installed with 13 smart meters.
Kota Samarahan substation Upper Lanang substation Jepak substation Medan substation
33 kV/11 kV Substation in Kuching. Loading is around 3000 kW supplying mainly to residential customers. 35 km long and will be installed with 26 smart meters. 33 kV/11 kV Substation in Sibu, supplying mainly to industrial customers, intermixed with residential suburbs and commercial lots. This central area is renowned for power theft. 5 km long and will be installed with 23 smart meters. 33 kV/11 kV Substation in Bintulu, supplying mainly to industrial customers intermixed with residential suburbs. 50 km long and will be installed with 36 smart meters. 33 kV/11 kV Substation in Bintulu, supplying mainly to industrial and commercial customers. 18 km long and will be installed with 27 smart meters.
Tab.1  Projected sites
Parameters selected Values set
Max No. of SS nodes support 100
Antenna gain 15 dBi
Maximum transmission power/W 0.5
PHY profile Wireless OFDMA 20 MHz
Path loss Free space
Modulation QPSK1/2
Received power tolerance –90 to –60 dBm
Tab.2  WiMAX parameters
Fig.6  NAN architecture of New Priok project site
Fig.7  NAN architecture of Samarang (bottom) project site
Attribute Value
Transaction mix (Queries/Total transactions) 100%
Transaction interarrival time Exponential (30)
Transaction size/bytes Constant (900)
Symbolic server name Database server
Type of service Best effort (0)
RSVP parameters None
Back-end custom application Not used
Tab.3  Configuration of application
Fig.8  Traffic received (packets/s) by WAM server
Fig.9  LSP delay between selected substation LER and SDC
Source (IP address)–destination (IP address) pair ETE delay/ms
Tada_PMU (192.0.15.2/24)–WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 22.933
Mambong PMU (192.0.17.2/24)–WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 17.854
Similajau_PMU (192.0.44.1/24)–WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 22.099
Bunut_PMU (192.0.49.1/24)–WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 24.686
Tundan_PMU (192.0.50.1/24)–WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 24.686
Limbang PMU (192.0.51.1/24)–WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 27.563
Lawas PMU (192.0.52.2/24)–WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 27.974
Tab.4  ETE delay (ms) of the seven PMUs
Fig.10  TCP delay of WAM server at SDC
Fig.11  Comparison between TCP delay of smart grid with solely OSPF routing and MPLS
Source (IP address)–destination (IP address) pair ETE delay/ms
Tada PMU (192.0.15.2/24) – WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 124.56
Mambong PMU (192.0.17.2/24) – WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 100.17
Similajau PMU (192.0.44.1/24) – WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 292.09
Bunut PMU (192.0.49.1/24) – WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 249.50
Tundan PMU (192.0.50.1/24) – WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 224.68
Limbang PMU (192.0.51.1/24) – WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 246.75
Lawas PMU (192.0.52.2/24) – WAM (192.0.27.2/24) 287.94
Tab.5  ETE delay (ms) of PMU with OSPF routing
Fig.12  LSP delay of PV plant subnet (top) and wind farm subnet (bottom)
Source–destination pair ETE delay/ms
WT 1 (192.0.54.2/24)–WAM 23.500
WT 2 (192.0.54.1/24)–WAM 23.200
WT 3 (192.0.54.7/24)–WAM 24.131
WT 4 (192.0.54.8/24)–WAM 24.156
WT 5 (192.0.54.6/24)–WAM 24.108
WT 6 (192.0.54.5/24)–WAM 24.215
WT 7 (192.0.54.4/24)– WAM 23.300
WT 8 (192.0.54.3/24)–WAM 23.250
Tab.6  ETE delay (ms) of the eight wind turbines
Source–destination pair ETE delay/ms
PMU–WAM 27.609
Humidity–WAM 27.001
Temperature–WAM 27.41
Wind speed–WAM 27.432
Global irradiance–WAM 27.000
Tab.7  ETE delay (ms) of the PMU and sensors simulated in the PV plant subnet
Fig.13  TCP delay of WAM server after addition of renewable energy monitoring systems
Fig.14  Traffic sent and received by WiMAX base station
Fig.15  Load and throughput of WiMAX base station
Fig.16  Traffic received by WiMAX node of data collector
Fig.17  Load vs. throughput of WiMAX node of data collector
Fig.18  Traffic received by Wi-Fi node of data collector
Fig.19  Load vs. throughput of Wi-Fi node of data collector
Fig.20  Wi-Fi retransmission attempts of data collector
Fig.21  Traffic received by smart meter
Fig.22  Traffic received by MDMS
Fig.23  End to end delay of New Priok and Jepak WiMAX base station
Project site WiMAX base station Delay/ms
New Priok 10.75
Samariang 10.13
Kota Samarahan 45.06
Upper Lanang 40.53
Jepak 70.56
Medan 42.33
Town 12.32
Mariana 11.92
Tab.8  WiMAX end to end delay of project sites
Fig.24  WiMAX end to end delay of data collectors in Mariana site
Mariana site data collector Wi-Fi ETE delay/ms
Data collector 1 (192.0.5.1/24) 5.72
Data collector 2 (192.0.5.2/24) 5.61
Data collector 3 (192.0.5.3/24) 7.23
Data collector 4 (192.0.5.4/24) 7.26
Tab.9  Wi-Fi end to end delay of data collectors in Mariana site
Fig.25  Wi-Fi end to end delay of data collectors in Mariana
Fig.26  Smart meter IP end to end delay of New Priok site
Source (IP address)–destination (IP address) pair ETE delay/ms TCP delay/ms
Commercial customer 1 (192.0.1.2/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 42.32 41.23
Commercial customer 2 (192.0.1.3/24)–MDMS(192.0.8.2/24) 44.92 45.62
Commercial customer 3(192.0.1.4/24)–MDMS(192.0.8.2/24) 53.13 51.96
Commercial customer 10 (192.0.1.5/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 53.67 52.71
Commercial customer 9(192.0.1.6/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 48.45 43.74
Commercial customer 6(192.0.1.7/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 51.83 56.18
Commercial customer 7(192.0.1.8/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 50.71 51.22
Commercial customer 8 (192.0.1.9/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 49.84 44.74
Commercial customer 5 (192.0.1.10/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 43.59 41.69
Commercial customer 4(192.0.2.2/24)–MDMS (192.0.8.2/24) 42.12 45.12
Tab.10  Smart meter IP end to end delay and TCP delay of New Priok site
Source (IP address)–destination (IP address) pair TCP delay/ms
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 1 (192.0.1.2/24) 14.11
MDMS(192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 2 (192.0.1.3/24) 13.98
MDMS(192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 3(192.0.1.4/24) 19.75
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 10 (192.0.1.5/24) 20.66
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 9(192.0.1.6/24) 12.74
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 6(192.0.1.7/24) 19.68
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 7(192.0.1.8/24) 21.01
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 8 (192.0.1.9/24) 16.41
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 5 (192.0.1.10/24) 15.06
MDMS (192.0.8.2/24)–commercial customer 4(192.0.2.2/24) 17.01
Tab.11  MDMS IP end to end delay of New Priok site
Fig.27  MDMS TCP delay
Fig.28  PCT end to end delay (left) and load of smart ACon 1 (right) in commercial customer 1of New Priok site
Fig.29  WiMAX load vs. throughput (Global statistics)
Fig.30  Average WiMAX end to end delay (Global statistics)
Fig.31  Wi-Fi load vs. throughput (Global statistics)
Fig.32  Wi-Fi end to end delay (Global statistics)
Fig.33  TCP delay and retransmission attempts (Global statistics)
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