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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (4) : 464-479
THD reduction with reactive power compensation for fuzzy logic DVR based solar PV grid connected system
Akhil GUPTA1,*(),Saurabh CHANANA1,Tilak THAKUR2
1. Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119, India
2. Department of Electrical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh 160012, India
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Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is used to protect sensitive loads from voltage disturbances of the distribution generation (DG) system. In this paper, a new control approach for the 200 kW solar photovoltaic grid connected system with perturb and observe maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is implemented. Power quality improvement with comparison is conducted during fault with proportional integral (PI) and artificial intelligence-based fuzzy logic controlled DVR. MPPT tracks the actual variable DC link voltage while deriving the maximum power from a photovoltaic array and maintains DC link voltage constant by changing modulation index of the converter. Simulation results during fault show that the fuzzy logic based DVR scheme demonstrates simultaneous exchange of active and reactive power with less total harmonic distortion (THD) present in voltage source converter (VSC) current and grid current with fast tracking of optimum operating point at unity power factor. Standards (IEEE-519/1547), stipulates that the current with THD greater than 5% cannot be injected into the grid by any distributed generation source. Simulation results and validations of MPPT technique and operation of fuzzy logic controlled DVR demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.

Keywords fuzzy logic      maximum power point tracking (MPPT)      proportional integral (PI)      control      voltage restorer     
Corresponding Authors: Akhil GUPTA   
Online First Date: 04 July 2014    Issue Date: 09 January 2015
 Cite this article:   
Akhil GUPTA,Saurabh CHANANA,Tilak THAKUR. THD reduction with reactive power compensation for fuzzy logic DVR based solar PV grid connected system[J]. Front. Energy, 2014, 8(4): 464-479.
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Fig.1  Simulation model of the solar PV array connected to the grid through three-phase inverter
Fig.2  P-V and V-I curves obtained from simulations by using one of the two 100 kW solar PV arrays

(a) P-V curve; (b) V-I curve

Fig.3  Ramp up-down solar radiation intensity used, for 100 kW Sunpower SPR-305-WHT solar PV model under variable environmental conditions

Time (s)

System name (components) Rating values
No. of solar cells per module 96
No. of series connected modules per string 5
No. of parallel strings 66
Module specifications under STC [ Voc, Isc, Vmp, Imp] [64.2 V, 5.96 A, 54.7 V, 5.58 A]
Model parameters for one module [ Rs, Rp, Isat, Iph, Qd ] [0.038 ?, 993.5 ?, 1.1753e-008 A, 5.9602 A, 1.3]
Maximum power Pmp 66 × 5 × 54.7 × 5.58 = 100.7 kW
Tab.1  Specifications adopted for one solar PV array (SunPower SPR-305-WHT)
System name (components) Rating values
3-Ф Transformer nominal power and frequency [ 202 kVA, 50 Hz ]
Utility grid components Length of two 3-Ф transmission lines 4.5 km and 13.5 km
3-Ф series RLC load [Vn, P] [25 kV,2.20 MW]
3-Ф series RLC load [Vn, P, + Ql] [25 kV, 28 MW, + 2.2 MVAR]
3-Ф Transformer nominal power and frequency [47 MVA, 50 Hz ]
Grounding transformer nominal power and frequency [100 MVA, 50 Hz ]
A 3-Ф programmable voltage source 120 kV (phase to phase)
X/R ratio 7
Base voltage 120 kV
3-Ф short circuit level at base voltage 2500 MVA
Tab.2  Specifications adopted for transformer and utility grid
System name (components) Rating values
Nominal DC voltage 100 V
Nominal power and frequency [200 kW, 50 Hz ]
DC voltage regulator gains [ Kp, Ki ] [7, 800]
Current regulator gains [ Kp, Ki ] [0.3, 20]
CL filter [C, L] [1500 μF (with R = 1 m?), 1500 mH (with R = 1 ?),]
Load [Vn, P, - Qc] [260 V, 20 kW, - 20 kVAR]
Tab.3  Specifications adopted for controller to average based VSC, CL, and connected load
Fig.4  General scheme of a 200 kW solar PV energy conversion system connected to utility grid distribution system
Fig.5  Flowchart of VSC control with feed-forward current controller
Fig.6  Block diagram of PI and fuzzy logic controlled dynamic voltage restorer

VSC based IGBT

Fig.7  Block diagram of FLC
Fig.8  Membership function of error, change of error and output pulse to PWM (defuzzified value)

(a) Error E; (b) change of error dE; (c) output pulse to PWM (defuzzified value)

Output pulses to PWM(c)

PI controlled DVR (DC current component in A) Fuzzy logic controlled DVR (DC current component in A)
VSC current 3.43 % (0.9858) 3.44 % (0.9673)
Load current 1.33 % (0.5343) 1.34 % (0.558)
Grid current 0.61 % (0.006872) 0.58 % (0.006267)
Tab.4  THD analysis of VSC current, load current and grid current (with DC current component)
Fig.9  Without DVR control from 3-Ф VSC, connected load and grid with P&O MPPT control during fault

(a) Active power output; (b) reactive power output

Fig.10  Without DVR control uncompensated 3-Ф discrete output voltage from VSC and 3-Фgrid voltage with P&O MPPT control during fault

(a) 3-Ф discrete output voltage from VSC; (b) 3-Фgrid voltage

Fig.11  Without DVR control uncompensated 3-Ф discrete output current from VSC and 3-? current injected into grid with P&O MPPT control during fault

(a) 3-Фdiscrete output current from VSC; (b) 3-Ф current injected into grid

Fig.12  Active power output waveforms from 3-Ф VSC, connected load and grid for

(a) PI controlled DVR; (b) fuzzy logic controlled DVR during fault

Fig.13  Reactive power output waveforms from 3-Ф VSC, connected load and grid for

(a) PI controlled DVR; (b) fuzzy logic controlled DVR during fault

Fig.14  Compensated waveforms using fuzzy logic controlled DVR during fault

(a) 3-Ф discrete output voltage from VSC; (b) 3-Ф grid voltage

Fig.15  Compensated waveforms using fuzzy logic controlled DVR during fault

(a) 3-Ф discrete output current from VSC; (b) 3-? grid injected current

Fig.16  Comparison in actual dc link voltage to VSC and reference voltage during fault for

(a) Without fuzzy logic DVR; (b) with fuzzy logic controlled DVR

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