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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (4) : 64     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-020-1243-z
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Enhanced triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) degradation through application of an O3/UV process: Performance optimization and degradation pathways
Yapeng Song1,2, Hui Gong1(), Jianbing Wang2, Fengmin Chang1, Kaijun Wang1()
1. State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2. School of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, China
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Abstract

• UV/O3 process had higher TAIC mineralization rate than O3 process.

• Four possible degradation pathways were proposed during TAIC degradation.

• pH impacted oxidation processes with pH of 9 achieving maximum efficiency.

• CO32– negatively impacted TAIC degradation while HCO3 not.

• Cl can be radicals scavenger only at high concentration (over 500 mg/L Cl).

Triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC, C12H15N3O3) has featured in wastewater treatment as a refractory organic compound due to the significant production capability and negative environmental impact. TAIC degradation was enhanced when an ozone(O3)/ultraviolet(UV) process was applied compared with the application of an independent O3 process. Although 99% of TAIC could be degraded in 5 min during both processes, the O3/UV process had a 70%mineralization rate that was much higher than that of the independent O3 process (9%) in 30 min. Four possible degradation pathways were proposed based on the organic compounds of intermediate products identified during TAIC degradation through the application of independent O3 and O3/UV processes. pH impacted both the direct and indirect oxidation processes. Acidic and alkaline conditions preferred direct and indirect reactions respectively, with a pH of 9 achieving maximum Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal. Both CO32– and HCO3 decreased TOC removal, however only CO32– negatively impacted TAIC degradation. Effects of Cl as a radical scavenger became more marked only at high concentrations (over 500 mg/L Cl). Particulate and suspended matter could hinder the transmission of ultraviolet light and reduce the production of HO· accordingly.

Keywords Triallyl isocyanurate      O3/UV      Advanced oxidation processes (AOP)      Degradation pathway     
Corresponding Author(s): Hui Gong,Kaijun Wang   
Issue Date: 14 April 2020
 Cite this article:   
Yapeng Song,Hui Gong,Jianbing Wang, et al. Enhanced triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) degradation through application of an O3/UV process: Performance optimization and degradation pathways[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 64.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-020-1243-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2020/V14/I4/64
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Yapeng Song
Hui Gong
Jianbing Wang
Fengmin Chang
Kaijun Wang
Fig.1  Schematic representation of TAIC (left), UV/O3 reactor flowchart (center) and real ozone reactor facility (right) used in this study.
Fig.2  Comparison of TAIC removal (a) and mineralisation (b) through application of independent O3 and O3/UV processes; intermediate products obtained during TAIC degradation with the application of independent O3 (c) and O3/UV processes (d).
Reaction time (min) O3 O3/UV
TAIC
(mg/L)
EE/O
(kWh/m3)
TAIC
(mg/L)
EE/O
(kWh/m3)
2.5 18.35 2.25 26.75 2.89
5 0.055 1.02 0.23 1.26
Tab.1  EE/O values of independent O3 and O3/UV processes
Reaction time Molecular structure Product name
O3-5 min 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, 1,3,5-tri-2-propenyl P0
P1
O3-20 min 1-Butyl-3-methyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine P3
O3-30 min 1-Butyl-3-methyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine P3
P6
O3/UV-5 min 2,4,6-Triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine P2
O3/UV-10 min 1-Butyl-3-methyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine P3
1,3-Dimethyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine P4
2-Propenal, 3,3-bis(dimethylamino)
O3/UV-20 min 1,3-Dimethyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine P4
Tab.2  Intermediate products formed during TAIC degradation through the application of independent O3 and O3 /UV processes
Fig.3  Proposed TAIC degradation pathway during application of independent O3 and O3/UV processes. Four possible pathways (1), (2), (3), (4) were proposed.
Fig.4  TAIC removal (left) and mineralization (right) during application of the O3/UV process at various pH levels.
Fig.5  TAIC removal (a, c) and mineralization (b, d) during application of the O3/UV process at various CO32– and HCO3 concentrations.
Fig.6  TAIC removal (a) and mineralization (b, c) during application of the O3/UV process at various Cl concentrations.
Fig.7  TAIC removal (a) and mineralization (b) during application of the O3/UV process at various concentrations of SS; UV intensity variation shown as distance (c).
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