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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Chemical geothermometry: application to mud volcanic waters of the Caucasus region
Olga E. KIKVADZE1,2(), Vasilii Yu. LAVRUSHIN1,2, Boris G. POLYAK1
1. Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119017, Russia
2. V.S.Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
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Abstract

The generation temperatures of gas-water fluids released from mud volcanoes in different provinces of the Caucasian region have been constrained using Mg/Li (ТMg/Li) chemical geothermometry. Mud volcanic fluids in the Taman Peninsula (Kerch-Taman mud volcanic province) were generated at temperatures (ТMg/Li) from 41 to 137°С. The depths of the respective mud reservoirs estimated from ТMg/Li values and local geothermal gradient are in a range of 1.0 to 3.4 km which spans the Maykop Formation of marine shale. For the South Caspian province, the ТMg/Li values of waters vary from 18 to 137°C and the respective root depths НMg/Li of mud volcanoes range from ~ 0.85 to 6.5 km. The obtained TMg/Li values for the analyzed mud volcanic waters from Caucasian provinces are in positive correlation with НСО3 contents and water oxygen isotope compositions (δ18ОН2О and Dd18ОН2О) and in high negative correlation with Cl. The increase of ТMg/Li toward the Greater Caucasus Range, as well as the lateral TMg/Li patterns in the Taman and South Caspian mud volcanic provinces, support the idea that mud volcanic fluids generate at temperatures increasing progressively toward the Alpine orogenic belt.

Keywords mud volcano      fluid      chemical geothermometry      stable isotopes      Caucasus region     
Corresponding Author(s): Olga E. KIKVADZE   
Online First Date: 03 June 2020   
 Cite this article:   
Olga E. KIKVADZE,Vasilii Yu. LAVRUSHIN,Boris G. POLYAK. Chemical geothermometry: application to mud volcanic waters of the Caucasus region[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 03 June 2020. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1007/s11707-019-0810-8.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-019-0810-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y/V/I/0
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Olga E. KIKVADZE
Vasilii Yu. LAVRUSHIN
Boris G. POLYAK
Fig.1  Tectonic sketch map of Caucasus, simplified after (Milanovskii and Koronovskii, 1973). 1 – Scythian Plate; 2 – Indol-Kuban (IKF) and Terek-Caspian (TCF) foredeeps; 3 – Greater Caucasus orogen; 4 – Rioni (RB) and Kura (KB) intermontane basins; 5 – Lesser Caucasus orogen; 6 – centers of recent Ca-alkaline volcanism; 7 – Kerch-Taman (I), South Caspian (II) and Kakhety (III) MV provinces.
Fig.2  Location map of mud volcanoes in the Taman peninsula, Kerch-Taman MV province, according to (Shnyukov et al., 1986). 1-2 – sampled (1) and non-sampled (2) mud volcanoes. Sampling sites numbers are same as in Table 1.
Fig.3  Location map of mud volcanoes in the South Caspian MV province, Azerbaijan. 1 – mud volcanoes; 2 – Neftechala oil well; 3-6 –petroleum areas: Fore-Caspian (3), Apsheron (4), Shemakha-Gobustan (5), ForeKura (6), according to (Jakubov et al., 1971). Sampling sites numbers are same as in Table 1.
MV No. ºN lat. ºE long. Sampling site Sample number* VSMOW/‰ Data source***
δ18O δD 18О**
Kerch-Taman Province (see Fig. 2)
1 44.90111 37.59833 Semigor MV 14-1/09 10.3 −25 14.7 1
1 44.90111 37.59833 Semigor MV 14-3/09 10.0 −27 14.6 1
2 45.00561 37.72372 Gladkov MV, seepage 4 2/09BG 5.0 −21 8.9 1
3 45.07058 37.61042 Shugo MV, seepage 1 3-1/09BG 5.2 −31 10.3 1
4 45.02836 37.58561 Vostok MV, central seepage 15/09 3.3 −29 8.2 1
5 45.11867 36.89775 Bugaz MV, central seepage 4-1/09 10.1 −26 14.6 1
5 45.11867 36.89775 Bugaz MV, flank seepage 4-2/09 10.2 −28 15.0 1
5 45.11867 36.89775 Bugaz MV, eastern seepage 4-3/09 8.9 −27 13.5 1
7 45.20233 36.78258 Karabetova Gora MV, western seepage 1/09 14.2 −24 18.5 1
8 45.26925 36.96256 Shapur MV, central seepage 6-1/09 3.2 −33 8.6 1
9 45.18939 37.18353 Yuzhno-Neftyanoi MV, seepage with oil films 7/09 −3.2 −33 2.2 1
10 45.27808 37.38744 Miska MV, central seepage 10/09 1.2 −34 6.7 1
12 45.30942 37.03928 Tsymbaly-Vostok MV, seepage 1 17/09 2.9 −35 8.5 1
14 45.43231 36.92253 Kuchugur MV, central seepage 13-1/09 5.4 −22 9.4 1
15 45.35414 36.71381 Chushka MV, flank seepage 12-1/09 5.0 −33 10.4 1
15 45.35414 36.71381 Chushka MV, central seepage 12/09 3.0 −22 7.0 1
19 45.25181 37.43917 Gnilaya MV, central seepage near lake 9-2/09BG 1.5 −34 7.0 1
19 45.25181 37.43917 Gnilaya MV, southern group of seepages 9-3/09 0.9 −39 7.0 1
21 45.32461 37.17114 Sopka MV 11/09BG −3.4 −35 2.2 1
South Caspian Province (see Fig. 3)
Fore-Caspian area
37 41.00317 49.19772 Zarat (Khydyrzyndy-2) MV 29/10 7.2 −25 11.6 2
47 41.15500 48.98386 Kaynardja MV 18/12 0.1 −28 4.9 1
Apsheron area
3 40.46239 49.57422 Uchtepe MV 3/10 7.4 −21 11.3 2
12 40.25767 49.55056 Pelpelya-Garadag MV 10/10 3.1 −19 6.7 2
21 40.35197 49.55944 Shorbulag MV 17/10 2.1 −22 6.1 2
23 40.38189 49.58417 Davaboynu MV 19/10 3.2 −24 7.5 2
42 40.49294 49.70328 Cheildag MV 34/10 6.2 −13 9.1 2
Shemakha-Gobustan area
1 40.48053 49.44811 Pirekyashkyul MV, northern group of seepages 1/10 3.1 −12 5.9 2
2 40.46625 49.46950 Pirekyashkyul MV, northern group of seepages 2/10 2.8 −21 6.7 2
4 39.99550 49.40642 Dashgil MV, central mud breccia field 4-1/10 2.0 −17 5.4 2
5 39.99561 49.40278 Dashgil MV, large seepage 4-2/10 2.5 −29 7.4 2
6 39.99861 49.47442 Bakhar MV 5/10 4.1 −26 8.6 2
7 40.00100 49.47031 Bakhar MV, northern group of seepages 5-1/10 2.5 −23 6.6 2
8 39.97019 49.34731 Saryboga MV, western group of seepages 6/10 3.2 −31 8.3 2
9 39.97358 49.35978 Goturdag MV 7/10 2.3 −31 7.4 2
10 39.99452 49.30911 Airantekyan MV 8/10 n.d. n.d. n.d. 2
22 40.31267 49.43722 Shakhigaya MV 18/10 1.9 −22 5.9 2
24 40.25078 49.24558 Galendarakhtarma MV 20/10 5.6 −14 8.6 2
25 40.35258 49.18122 Eastern Nardaran-Akhtarma MV 21/10 5.4 −15 8.5 2
26 40.82756 48.58558 Demirchi MV 22-1/10 10.4 −23 14.5 2
27 40.82756 48.58558 Demirchi MV 22-2/10 n.d. n.d. n.d. 2
28 40.51019 49.03208 Malyi Mereze MV 23/10 7.0 −21 10.9 2
31 40.29842 49.25425 Cheildag MV 26/10 4.9 −20 8.7 2
32 40.30089 49.26419 Cheildag MV, northern group of seepages 26-1/10 4.7 −12 7.5 2
33 40.30750 49.23358 Cheildag MV, western group of seepages 26-2/10 6.6 −14 9.6 2
34 40.30208 49.24000 Cheildag MV, southern group of seepages 26-3/10 5.4 −22 9.4 2
38 40.18611 49.23956 Gylych MV 30/10 4.8 −22 8.8 2
39 40.20617 49.21006 Agdam MV, group of seepages 31/10 2.7 −29 7.6 2
40 40.18083 49.18961 Arzani MV 32/10 5.1 −20 8.9 2
41 40.22075 49.16239 Shekikhan MV 33/10 8.2 −24 12.5 2
48 40.25131 48.84189 Kalamadyn MV, western group of seepage 1/12 4.8 n.d
.
n.d
.
1
49 40.30642 48.09720 Northern Inchabel MV 2/12 3.0 n.d. n.d. 1
49 40.30642 48.09720 Northern Inchabel MV 3/13 1.3 −33 6.7 1
50 40.48044 49.03178 Shikhzarli MV 9/12 6.3 −27 10.9 1
45 40.81014 48.70581 Northern-Astrakhanka MV 10/12 10.3 −28 15.1 1
51 40.17442 48.96256 Kyrlyh MV 12/12 3.0 −20 6.8 1
52 40.08844 48.95444 Malyi-Kharami MV 13/12 1.7 n.d. n.d. 1
53 40.43525 48.74017 Gushchu MV 15/12 1.0 −32 6.3 1
54 40.60908 48.56597 Matrasa MV 16/12 1.7 −26 6.2 1
55 40.21864 49.04072 Dashmardan MV, central seepage 19/12 5.4 −25 9.8 1
55 40.21914 49.04569 Dashmardan MV, flank seepage 19-1/12 3.6 −27 8.2 1
56 40.74378 48.43914 Baskal MV, northern group of seepages 20/12 2.8 −23 6.9 1
57 40.54942 49.30064 Weis MV 21/12 8.8 −20 12.6 1
58 40.52700 48.70000 Melikchoban MV 1/13 n.d. n.d. n.d. 1
59 40.58800 48.01000 Kelakhana MV 2/13 n.d. n.d. n.d. 1
60 40.52500 48.01800 Charkhan MV 4/13 n.d. n.d. n.d. 1
Fore-Kura area
11 39.86128 49.29592 Khydyrly MV 9/10 1.0 −30 6.0 2
13 39.51211 49.10772 Duruvdag MV 11/10 1.2 −23 5.3 2
14 39.38161 49.14611 Duzdag MV, small seepage 12/10 2.0 −16 5.3 2
15 39.38161 49.14611 Duzdag MV, central seepage 12-1/10 3.3 −21 7.2 2
16 39.31475 49.18442 South-Neftechala MV 13/10 −0.6 −32 4.7 2
17 39.31833 49.18711 Oil well near South-Neftechala MV 13-1/10 n.d. −32 n.d. 2
18 39.94703 49.07764 Malyi Mishovdag MV 14/10 2.3 −23 6.4 2
19 39.95308 49.05206 Bol'shoy Mishovdag MV 15/10 2.5 −16 5.8 2
20 39.88431 48.95014 Yandere MV 16/10 3.0 −18 6.5 2
29 39.92097 49.26481 Kalmaz MV 24/10 4.4 −16 7.7 2
35 40.19606 48.87050 Akhtarma-Pashaly MV 27/10 1.5 −21 5.4 2
43 39.70417 49.41172 Biandovan MV 35/10 3.7 −25 8.1 2
66 40.19036 48.90350 Bol'shoy Kharami MV, central seepage 14/12 2.7 −25 7.1 1
66 40.19030 48.90432 Bol'shoy Kharami MV, eastern group of seepages 14-2/12 2.4 −26 6.9 1
Tab.1  Locations of sampling sites and oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of mud volcanic waters
MV No. Sample T/°C pH TDS/(g·L−1) Concentration/(g·L−1) Concentration/(mg·L−1) vol% Mg/Li Data
НСО3 Сl Na SO4 K Mg Ca Si Li×1000 CO2 T/°C calc. Depth/km source*
Taman area of the Kerch-Taman Province
1 14-1/09 22.3 7.95 10.58 5.25 2.13 2.71 36.0 19.9 27.6 13.7 4.85 1.21 17.4 87 2.18 1, 2
1 14-3/09 23.0 8.25 11.47 5.61 2.13 3.01 176.1 16.3 27.9 8.1 5.34 1.16 8.0 86 2.15 1, 2
2 2/09BG n.d. 6.93 20.07 0.61 11.35 5.84 1.5 229.6 114.9 1560.0 6.68 13.26 1.7 136 3.40 1, 2
3 3-1/09BG 21.0 7.76 18.03 3.54 7.80 5.73 119.8 65.9 77.2 29.8 18.2 11.18 4.5 137 3.43 1, 2
4 15/09 n.d. 8.67 10.87 3.90 3.19 3.01 353.4 41.1 42.7 15.9 6.69 0.54 6.9 63 1.57 1, 2
5 4-1/09 20.0 7.94 13.34 6.22 2.62 3.83 35.5 79.7 101.8 24.6 17.7 2.00 6.4 83 2.08 1, 2
5 4-2/09 23.2 8.27 15.02 6.83 3.05 4.41 64.4 55.6 107.9 19.7 24.1 1.83 n.d. 80 2.01 1, 2
5 4-3/09 n.d. 8.00 14.30 6.10 3.19 4.41 30.7 36.4 78.3 10.2 16.0 1.58 n.d. 81 2.02 1, 2
7 1/09 17.9 8.02 15.44 9.25 1.46 3.82 23.9 55.2 63.2 21.0 9.65 1.97 22.0 89 2.23 1, 2
8 6-1/09 21.6 7.73 18.42 4.27 5.74 8.01 61.3 30.0 53.2 14.6 3.91 1.09 n.d. 76 1.91 1, 2
9
10
7/09
10/09
30.3
n.d.
6.60
7.81
0.80
12.09
0.37
2.39
0.14
5.29
0.11
4.30
26.9
46.1
9.3
14.0
7.3
31.6
114.2
22.0
9.67
5.07
0.02
0.22
5.3
1.9
18
47
0.46
1.18
1, 2
1, 2
12 17/09 25.0 n.d. 11.87 3.29 4.47 3.90 11.8 30.8 34.0 30.9 6.36 1.08 n.d. 82 2.05 1, 2
14 13-1/09 n.d. 6.98 16.05 3.78 4.96 4.81 1462.1 29.6 115.9 173.1 12.8 1.02 16.9 66 1.65 1, 2
15 12/09 17.8 7.82 11.63 3.05 4.26 4.12 8.4 30.9 33.3 30.5 6.09 1.07 3.7 82 2.04 1, 2
15 12-1/09 18.2 7.81 10.96 3.90 3.26 3.60 n.d. 25.3 35.6 34.5 8.82 0.84 5.3 75 1.87 1, 2
19 9-2/09BG n.d. 8.79 13.10 2.44 5.82 4.60 24.0 5.8 13.3 4.6 2.74 0.11 0.8 41 1.02 1, 2
19 9-3/09 n.d. 8.66 13.12 2.56 5.53 4.75 48.3 6.1 5.8 3.3 4.39 0.12 0.5 51 1.28 1, 2
21 11/09BG 25.5 8.84 9.59 1.83 3.05 2.90 1200.6 12.8 10.9 9.7 2.98 0.20 6.7 56 1.41 1, 2
Fore-Caspian area of the South Caspian Province
37 29/10 13.1 7.42 35.3 2.04 21.56 10.92 14.3 186.4 123.4 123.0 6.62 14.08 2.4 137 6.52 1, 3
47 18/12 17.4 6.69 63.8 0.89 37.59 23.22 n.d. 94.9 654.8 813.4 2.68 3.61 5.6 75 3.57 1
Apsheron area of the South Caspian Province
3 3/10 18.9 7.77 10.7 5.06 2.41 2.92 10.1 8.3 28.3 15.3 6.83 0.69 1.1 73 3.48 1, 3
12 10/10 n.d. 8.65 20.5 5.80 7.66 6.56 59.7 7.8 66.9 18.8 2.01 0.59 0.2 60 2.85 1, 3
21 17/10 14.2 7.82 13.2 1.37 5.82 4.38 961.9 15.8 75.3 107 3.52 0.36 1.5 48 2.29 1, 3
23 19/10 15.6 7.65 19.4 1.36 10.78 6.73 13.5 25.3 214.8 94.0 7.58 1.30 2.2 64 3.06 1, 3
42 34/10 13.7 8.27 9.6 2.53 3.17 2.98 7.7 11.1 11.5 8.5 3.96 0.38 0.6 70 3.32 1, 3
Shemakha-Gobustan area of the South Caspian Province
1 1/10 15.0 8.00 18.7 8.10 3.98 5.67 454.5 20.9 81.3 13.0 6.09 0.87 2.9 66 3.16 1, 3
2 2/10 16.0 8.00 13.2 6.07 2.46 3.80 13.4 13.3 37.3 6.3 10.2 0.77 4.0 73 3.46 1, 3
4 4-1/10 19.0 7.45 24.0 0.49 12.74 7.50 9.3 17.2 362.3 217 4.51 0.46 1.0 37 1.78 1, 3
5 4-2/10 19.6 7.49 38.2 1.76 15.89 11.70 3168.1 24.0 351.6 83.2 4.48 1.17 2.2 57 2.69 1, 3
6 5/10 20.0 7.84 14.7 2.47 6.07 4.83 29.3 10.8 14.0 13.2 4.39 0.41 2.5 69 3.30 1, 3
7 5-1/10 19.0 7.92 34.7 2.50 16.89 11.78 466.0 18.4 159.0 18.2 3.15 0.24 0.9 33 1.57 1, 3
8 6/10 18.5 7.88 14.5 1.40 7.55 5.27 5.1 9.7 65.3 25.0 5.82 0.39 0.6 51 2.43 1, 3
9 7/10 19.6 7.58 18.4 4.15 6.48 5.55 84.7 15.4 111.0 31.7 6.80 0.90 0.8 63 3.02 1, 3
10 8/10 17.5 7.58 18.1 3.23 7.47 5.91 236.4 11.8 119.9 29.0 5.77 0.49 3.0 50 2.37 1, 3
22 18/10 14.7 7.60 34.0 0.57 15.37 9.41 553.0 9.3 392.3 244 4.58 0.21 0.3 23 1.07 1, 3
24 20/10 13.9 7.99 15.2 7.02 2.49 4.23 72.2 7.1 25.4 6.3 4.17 0.78 3.2 77 3.69 1, 3
25 21/10 13.0 7.52 16.3 5.30 4.26 4.86 650.1 15.3 80.3 43.7 7.76 0.67 4.3 60 2.88 1, 3
26 22-1/10 10.0 8.02 8.6 3.97 1.41 2.38 67.0 9.4 22.8 9.2 4.71 2.00 3.6 103 4.91 1, 3
27 22-2/10 9.0 7.60 8.6 4.24 1.27 2.36 3.4 17.9 18.1 13.8 5.59 2.78 3.5 116 5.53 1, 3
28 23/10 11.1 7.98 10.0 3.08 3.27 3.23 59.6 8.8 31.8 11.3 4.88 0.26 1.2 50 2.38 1, 3
31 26/10 16.1 8.46 13.4 5.72 3.08 4.03 31.7 18.1 59.1 10.6 4.76 1.68 2.0 86 4.09 1, 3
32 26-1/10 15.4 8.12 12.5 6.01 1.91 3.35 2.5 18.0 65.2 14.1 2.65 0.98 2.0 71 3.40 1, 3
33 26-2/10 14.5 7.82 10.6 4.15 2.31 3.01 68.8 10.8 32.7 9.5 6.45 0.96 3.6 79 3.77 1, 3
34 26-3/10 14.8 7.82 11.8 4.54 3.07 3.62 45.7 28.0 37.9 18.3 6.79 1.88 4.7 95 4.50 1, 3
38 30/10 15.9 7.48 17.5 5.26 5.78 5.45 6.4 39.6 107.9 49.8 10.8 2.58 10.4 89 4.25 1, 3
39 31/10 14.8 8.10 22.9 5.14 8.02 6.97 187.4 24.5 113.3 15.8 4.99 0.17 1.8 29 1.40 1, 3
40 32/10 16.8 7.66 15.7 5.73 4.22 4.74 8.6 33.0 64.6 19.8 14.7 2.19 6.5 92 4.36 1, 3
41 33/10 14.4 8.00 9.9 3.72 2.54 2.97 128.1 21.0 43.5 42.3 4.73 0.55 2.3 63 3.00 1, 3
48 1/12 18.5 8.05 13.9 1.15 7.17 4.91 21.1 12.0 81.9 19.0 2.88 0.07 1.3 18 0.84 1
49 2/12 18.0 7.37 16.8 0.85 8.92 5.84 3.1 24.4 63.8 112 8.23 0.48 2.2 56 2.66 1
49 3/13 n.d. 8.50 15.0 2.07 5.74 4.56 734.4 22.3 131.7 25.0 4.41 0.07 0.8 12 0.59 1
50 9/12 14.0 7.99 8.8 3.26 1.31 2.33 628.7 12.0 19.8 9.5 5.96 0.28 2.2 57 2.70 1
50 5/13 n.d. 8.10 8.6 4.17 1.31 2.38 27.5 11.0 15.5 13.1 4.89 1.52 8.6 101 4.81 1
45 10/12 12.6 8.02 9.0 4.92 0.70 2.29 2.5 17.1 4.6 2.0 6.52 0.49 3.8 87 4.14 1
51 12/12 20.8 7.88 26.2 1.74 14.97 10.00 2.7 8.7 174.0 15.4 5.51 0.39 3.6 41 1.96 1
52 13/12 18.5 7.58 25.1 0.85 14.38 9.43 2.7 25.6 67.7 59.6 3.74 0.27 2.2 43 2.05 1
53 15/12 18.3 7.46 20.4 0.99 10.74 7.06 7.5 36.9 90.1 74.1 4.58 1.21 3.2 73 3.46 1
54 16/12 23.8 7.56 24.0 5.63 10.28 8.47 5.3 34.0 139.1 27.1 7.16 1.99 9.7 79 3.78 1
55 19/12 n.d. 7.76 11.9 2.70 3.28 3.30 463.4 15.0 20.5 21.3 10.0 0.63 n.d. 75 3.56 1
55 19-1/12 17.5 7.35 11.8 2.65 4.16 3.72 378.5 13.6 42.0 62.4 9.55 0.37 5.8 55 2.62 1
56 20/12 17.4 7.63 7.6 0.40 2.09 1.67 508.9 11.8 15.1 31.9 5.28 0.67 1.7 80 3.81 1
57 21/12 20.9 7.96 11.5 5.82 1.53 3.17 103.6 21.0 21.7 14.3 11.8 0.46 3.6 67 3.18 1
58 1/13 n.d. 8.20 6.7 0.71 3.49 2.50 31.1 11.1 9.0 18.6 4.74 0.25 0.5 63 3.01 1
59 2/13 n.d. 8.10 12.7 4.92 2.27 3.17 6.9 31.2 63.2 19.2 9.28 1.55 4.4 83 3.95 1
60 4/13 n.d. 7.80 17.7 2.99 7.35 5.25 5.4 46.2 251.1 125.7 21.1 1.37 5.9 64 3.04 1
Fore-Kura area
11 9/10 17.9 7.47 28.3 0.11 16.17 8.78 9.0 15.6 259.2 1085.4 2.70 0.19 2.9 24 1.60 1, 3
13 11/10 19.9 7.89 37.1 1.36 19.92 13.23 13.0 16.2 84.0 20.3 3.97 0.03 0.5 n.d. n.d. 1, 3
14 12/10 20.3 7.61 47.3 1.10 20.40 13.21 3.3 18.2 170.2 82.1 6.36 0.12 0.5 21 1.39 1, 3
15 12-1/10 n.d. 7.41 25.6 1.13 12.81 8.59 6.6 15.2 41.2 43.0 9.45 0.17 0.6 39 2.59 1, 3
16 13/10 19.0 6.51 84.3 0.41 46.07 24.29 12.6 73.5 981.0 3326.2 14.6 1.20 3.5 47 3.10 1, 3
17 13-1/10 22.6 n.d. 40.4 0.12 24.60 13.71 8.0 40.1 465.3 1195.3 11.3 0.61 3.4 41 2.71 1, 3
18 14/10 17.5 7.46 20.3 3.25 8.30 6.28 n.d. 22.3 145.2 36.1 6.27 0.59 2.0 51 3.42 1, 3
19 15/10 16.0 7.60 14.6 2.14 6.48 4.79 6.1 16.6 92.3 31.2 4.23 0.16 0.5 30 2.03 1, 3
20 16/10 17.5 7.69 12.2 1.02 5.99 4.05 n.d. 10.2 86.0 43.1 5.95 0.13 1.2 27 1.83 1, 3
29 24/10 16.0 7.97 16.6 2.26 7.61 5.62 26.0 11.6 66.7 37.0 6.73 0.49 9.5 56 3.70 1, 3
35 27/10 15.5 7.29 16.8 3.54 6.62 4.78 n.d. 18.0 359.5 133.2 18.4 0.66 1.6 45 2.97 1, 3
43 35/10 15.5 7.76 25.1 1.25 11.10 7.42 n.d. 19.5 78.4 72.7 4.62 0.54 3.3 56 3.73 1, 3
66 14/12 18.7 8.00 18.4 2.11 8.68 6.32 3.7 13.2 40.7 11.1 5.26 0.10 2.7 29 1.90 1, 3
66 14-2/12 n.d. 8.09 24.3 3.43 9.55 7.40 17.5 13.5 38.1 5.0 4.52 0.06 3.5 21 1.39 1, 3
Tab.2  Chemistry of mud volcanic waters from the Caucasus region and the fluid generation temperatures based on Mg/Li geothermometry.
Fig.4  Major ions composition of mud volcanic waters from different Caucasian MV provinces (mg-equ %). А – Kerch-Taman province, B – South Caspian province.
Fig.5  Correlation of CO2 (vol.%) in free gases and HCO3 (g/l) in MV waters from the Caucasian MV provinces. А – Kerch-Taman province, B – South Caspian province. Straight lines are statistically significant correlation trends.
Fig.6  Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of water from the Caucasus region. 1-3 – MV waters of the Kerch-Taman (1), South Caspian (2), and Kakhety (3) provinces; 4 – fresh water, 5 – sea water, after (Dubinin and Dubinina, 2014) (AS= Sea of Azov, CS= Caspian Sea, BS= Black Sea), 6-7 – pore waters from hydrocarbon reservoirs, after (Seletskii, 1991), Azov-Kuban basin (6) Neftechala oil field in the South Caspian basin (7); 8 – CO2-rich springs from the Elbrus area; 9 – CO2-rich springs from West Caucasus; 10 – boreholes from the North Caucasus (8-10 – after Seletskii, 1998; Lavrushin, 2012; Dubinina, 2013). Dash line is Craig line of meteoric water composition (Craig, 1961). Solid line is statistically significant correlation trend inferred from the Taman MVs data. Black dots in two insets are all data set on MV waters from the Caucasus region.
Water variety, provinces VSMOW/‰ Data source*
δD d18О
MV water, Kerch-Taman province −39.0 – −21.0
−29.2 ± 2.5 (n=18)
−3.4 – +14.2
+5.4 ± 2.0 (n=18)
1
MV water, South Caspian province
Fore-Caspian area

Apsheron area
Shemakha-Gobustan area
Fore-Kura area
−33.0 – −12.0
−22.6 ± 1.5 (n=51)
−28.0 – −25.0
−26.5 (n=2)
−24.0 – −13.0
−19.8 ± 3.7 (n=5)
−33.0 – −12.0
−22.5 ± 2.0 (n=31)
−32.0 – −16.0
−22.5 ± 2.8 (n=13)
−0.6 – +10.4
+3.9 ± 0.7 (n=53)
+0.1 – +7.2
+3.7 (n=2)
+2.1 – +7.4
+4.4 ± 2.0 (n=5)
+1.0 – +10.4
+4.5± 0.8 (n=33)
−0.6 – +4.4
+2.3 ± 0.7 (n=13)
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
MV water, Kakhety province −1.0 – −27.0
−16.3 ± 9.0 (n=5)
+2.0 – +9.6
+4.3 ± 2.7 (n=5)
3
Pore water (Neftechala oil field) −73.0 – -49.0
−55.0 ± 4.9 (n=20)
−11.7 – -2.4
−6.0 ± 1.1 (n=20)
4
Pore water (oil and gas reservoirs of the Azov-Kuban basin) −68.0 – -58.0 n.d. 5
Fresh meteoric waters, South Caspian province −67.0 – −55.0
−59.0 ± 4.0 (n=5)
−11.5 – −9.6
−10.3 ± 0.6 (n=5)
2
Sea water (Sea of Azov) −42.0 −3.4 4
Sea water (Black Sea) −18 – −25
−21.5 (n=2)
−4 – −3
−3.5 (n=2)
4
Sea water (Caspian Sea) −27.0 −3.0 2
Tab.3  Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of MV water in comparison with pore water, sea water and spring water (the Caucasus region)
Fig.7  Constrained MV fluid generation temperatures (TMg/Li) and depths (HMg/Li) of mud volcanic reservoirs within the South Caspian province. Dash lines – the boundaries of MV areas. 1 – MV waters with HCO3-<25 mg-equ %, 2 – MV waters with HCO3->25 mg-equ %; 3-5 – distribution areas of different MV water types: 3 – HCO3-Cl/Na type, 4 – Cl-HCO3/Na type, 5 – Cl/Na type; 6 – the Great Caucasus, 7 – zone of high seismicity (Kadirov et al., 2012), 8 – general thrust direction after Reilinger et al. (2006) and Mosar et al. (2010), 9 – ranges of estimated TMg/Li and HMg/Li values. The specific values see in Table 4.
Fig.8  Correlation of calculated TMg/Li(°C), Cl and HCO3 contents, and δ18OH2O values in MV fluids. 1, 2 and 3, 4 are data points (1, 3) and trend (2, 4) in the Kerch-Taman and South Caspian provinces, respectively. Letters S, G and Y mark anomalous data points at Shugo, Gladkov, and Yuzhno-Neftyanoi mud volcanoes (Numbers 2, 3 and 9 in Tables 1 and 2, respectively).
MV province, area TMg/Li/°C HMg/Li/km
Kerch-Taman province 41–137
78.8±11.8 (n=18)
1.0–3.6
2.0±0.3 (n=18)
South Caspian province 18–137
60.8±6.3 (n=59)
0.8–6.5
3.1±0.3 (n=59)
?Fore-Caspian area 75–137
106 (n=2)
3.6–6.5
5.1 (n=2)
?Apsheron area 48–73
63±8.6 (n=5)
2.3–3.5
3.0±0.4 (n=5)
?Shemakha-Gobustan area 18–116
66.0±7.0 (n=39)
0.8–5.5
3.1±0.3 (n=39)
?Fore-Kura area 21–56
37.5±7.0 (n=13)
1.4–3.7
2.5±0.5 (n=13)
Kakhety province 58–108
78.3±22.4 (n=4)
1.9–3.6
2.6±0.8 (n=4)
Tab.4  Mg/Li temperature and depth constrains for mud volcano reservoirs in the Caucasus region (mean and extreme values, standard deviation)
Fig.9  Constrained MV fluid generation temperatures (TMg/Li) and depths (HMg/Li) of mud volcanic reservoirs of the Kerch-Taman province. Sketch map of the Crimea and Taman Peninsulas modified from Shnyukov et al. (1986). 1-2 – MVs: 1 – authors data, 2 – extra data are according to (Ershov and Levin, 2016; Sokol et al., 2019); 3 – Cenozoic sedimentary strata, 4 – Oligocene-Early Miocene shales (Maykop Formation), 5 – Cretaceous sedimentary strata, 6 – the Greater Caucasus orogeny, 7 – anticlinal folds, 8 – faults; 9 – isopachitis of the Maykop strata, km (Tugolesov, 1985); 10 – ranges of estimated TMg/Li and HMg/Li values. The specific values see in Table 2.
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