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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 410-421     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-018-0732-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Terrain relief periods of loess landforms based on terrain profiles of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province, China
Jianjun CAO1,2, Guoan TANG1, Xuan FANG1,2(), Jilong LI1, Yongjuan LIU2, Yiting ZHANG2, Ying ZHU2, Fayuan LI1()
1. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
2. School of Environment Science, Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, Nanjing 211171, China
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Abstract

The Loess Plateau is densely covered by numerous types of gullies which represent different soil erosion intensities. Therefore, research on topographic variation features of the loess gullies is of great significance to environmental protection and ecological management. Using a 5 m digital elevation model and data from a national geographic database, this paper studies different topographical areas of the Loess Plateau, including Shenmu, Suide, Yanchuan, Ganquan, Yijun, and Chunhua, to derive representative gully terrain profile data of the sampled areas. First, the profile data are standardized in MATLAB and then decomposed using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. Then, a significance test is performed on the results; the test confidence is 95% to 99%. The most reliable decomposition component is then used to calculate the relief period and size of the gullies. The results showed that relief periods of the Chunhua, Shenmu, Yijun, Yuanchuan, Ganquan, and Suide gullies are 1110.14 m, 1096.85 m, 1002.49 m, 523.48 m, 498.12 m, and 270.83 m, respectively. In terms of gully size, the loess landforms are sorted as loess fragmented tableland, aeolian and dune, loess tableland, loess ridge, loess hill and loess ridge, and loess hill, in descending order. Taken together, the gully terrain features of the sample areas and the results of the study are approximately consistent with the actual terrain profiles. Thus, we conclude that ensemble empirical mode decomposition is a reliable method for the study of the relief and topography of loess gullies.

Keywords loess gully      DEM      terrain profile      EEMD      Loess Plateau     
Corresponding Authors: Xuan FANG,Fayuan LI   
Just Accepted Date: 29 November 2018   Online First Date: 27 December 2018    Issue Date: 16 May 2019
 Cite this article:   
Jianjun CAO,Guoan TANG,Xuan FANG, et al. Terrain relief periods of loess landforms based on terrain profiles of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province, China[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2019, 13(2): 410-421.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-018-0732-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2019/V13/I2/410
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Jianjun CAO
Guoan TANG
Xuan FANG
Jilong LI
Yongjuan LIU
Yiting ZHANG
Ying ZHU
Fayuan LI
Fig.1  The study area and sampling sites.
Sampling sites Geographic location Landform types Location description
Shenmu 109°40′00″–110°54′00″E
38°50′00″–38°55′00″N
Aeolian and dune In Shenmu sample area, elevation is 1060–1322 m, with an average slope of 9° and gully density of 3.4 km/km2. Contiguous low hills covered by thin layers of sand and gently inclined dunes are found throughout this region
Suide 110°15′00″–110°22′30″E
37°32′30″–37°37′30″N
Loess hill In Suide sample area, elevation is 847–1163 m, with an average slope of 29° and gully density of 6.52 km/km2. The area is hilly and crisscrossed with gullies, with extremely severe soil erosion
Yanchuan 109°52′30″–110°00′00″E
36°42′30″–36°47′30″N
Loess ridge-hill In Yanchuan sample area, elevation is 953–1252 m, with an average slope of 31° and gully density of 6.78 km/km2. Rills and ephemeral gullies have developed on the ridges, and gulches, ditches, and streams have incised deeply below the loess ridges and hills
Ganquan 109°30′00″–109°37′30″E
36°10′00″–36°15′00″N
Loess ridge In Ganquan sample area, elevation is 1149–1445 m, with an average slope of 27° and gully density of 5.6 km/km2. Ridge slopes are eroded, and intense down-incising gulches and streams occur between ridges
Yijun 109°18′45″–109°26′15″E
35°25′00″–35°30′00″N
Loess tableland In Yijun sample area, elevation is 797–1134 m, with an average slope of 19° and gully density of 4.2 km/km2. Headward gully erosion is extremely severe, and gravitational erosion is active in this area
Chunhua 108°22′30″–108°30′00″E
34°50′00″–34°55′00″N
Loess fragmented tableland In Chunhua sample area, elevation is 768–1164 m, with an average slope of 12° and gully density of 3.13 km/km2. The loess tableland and residual tableland are the primary landforms of this area, but these have been deeply incised by a number of large gullies
Tab.1  Geographic description of the study sites
Fig.2  The six types of loess landform and the profile of gully, (a) Shenmu; (b) Suide; (c) Yanchuan; (d) Ganquan; (e) Yijun; (f) Chunhua.
Fig.3  The decomposition by EEMD of gully topographic in Shenmu site.
Fig.4  The decomposition by EEMD of gully topographic in Suide site.
Fig.5  The decomposition by EEMD of gully topographic in Yanchuan site.
Fig.6  The decomposition by EEMD of gully topographic in Ganquan site.
Fig.7  The decomposition by EEMD of gully topographic in Yijun site.
Fig.8  The decomposition by EEMD of gully topographic in Chunhua site.
Sampling site Parameters IMF1 IMF2 IMF3 IMF4 IMF5 IMF6 IMF7 IMF8 IMF9 IMF10 RES
Shenmu Variance contribution rate% 0.0229 0.0081 0.0087 0.0312 0.0342 0.0299 0.0962 0.3453 0.7733 0.001 98.65
Relief period/m 3.1673 6.7018 13.863 29.47 57.79 120.27 296.67 1483.3 2225 2225 --
Confidence level >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% <95% <95% --
Suide Variance contribution rate% 0.0289 0.0118 0.0116 0.0183 0.0296 0.0509 0.1622 0.4577 0.3758 0.1268 98.73
Relief period/m 3.2411 6.7226 13.815 29.87 58.168 120.13 325.06 690.75 1105.2 1842 --
Confidence level >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% <95% >99% >99% >99% >99% --
Yanchuan Variance contribution rate% 0.0201 0.0091 0.0179 0.0316 0.0842 0.0615 0.0456 1.1462 0.1434 -- 98.44
Relief period/m 3.21 6.8942 14.392 29.776 63.963 115.13 431.75 690.8 1727 -- --
Confidence level >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% <95% >99% >99% -- --
Ganquan Variance contribution rate% 0.0207 0.0091 0.0077 0.0118 0.0329 0.0384 0.8343 0.0747 0.1731 -- 98.80
Relief period/m 3.1089 6.6753 14.212 28.294 57.111 128.5 308.4 1542 1542 -- --
Confidence level >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% -- --
Yijun Variance contribution rate% 0.0214 0.0074 0.0063 0.0085 0.0115 0.0075 0.0099 0.6132 0.0185 0.0641 99.23
Relief period/m 3.2036 6.5079 13.289 29.092 55.485 109.84 207 768.86 1794 2691 --
Confidence level >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% --
Chunhua Variance contribution rate% 0.0248 0.0089 0.0071 0.0466 0.0583 0.1512 0.0406 0.0176 0.0578 -- 99.59
Relief period/m 3.2441 6.3869 13.556 28.629 62.03 124.06 372.18 454.89 1023.5 -- --
Confidence level >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% >99% <95% <95% -- --
Tab.2  The parameters of significance test by Monte Carlo of six study sites in Loess Plateau
Fig.9  The significance test by Monte Carlo of gully topographic relief periods in six study sites. (a) Shenmu; (b) Suide; (c) Yanchuan; (d) Ganquan; (e) Yijun; (f) Chunhua.
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