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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (4) : 717-730     DOI: 10.1007/s11707-016-0554-7
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis
Jiashuo LI1,2,Ran LUO3,Qing YANG1(),Haiping YANG2
1. Department of New Energy Science and Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
2. National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
3. School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
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Abstract

Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

Keywords input-output analysis      fuel-related CO2 emissions      Hubei Province     
Corresponding Authors: Qing YANG   
Just Accepted Date: 25 February 2016   Online First Date: 24 March 2016    Issue Date: 04 November 2016
 Cite this article:   
Jiashuo LI,Ran LUO,Qing YANG, et al. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2016, 10(4): 717-730.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-016-0554-7
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2016/V10/I4/717
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Jiashuo LI
Ran LUO
Qing YANG
Haiping YANG
Input Output
Intermediate use Final use
Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector n Household consumption (Rural) Household consumption (Urban) Government consumption Fixed capital formation Inventory increase Export
Intermediate
inputs
Sector 1 Q1 Q2
Sector 2
Sector n
Value added Wages Q3
Taxes
Depreciation of fixed capital
Surplus
Net environmental inputs CO2 emissions Q0
Tab.1  Systematic structure of input-output table
Sector code Sector content ?Sector code ?Sector content
1 Farming, Forestry, Animal Husbandry, Fishery (Agriculture) ??22 ??Scrap and Waste
2 Coal Mining and Dressing ??23 ??Electric Power, Heat Production and Supply
3 Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction ??24 ??Gas Production and Supply
4 Metals Mining and Dressing ??25 ??Tap Water Production and Supply
5 Nonmetal and Other Minerals Mining and Dressing ??26 ??Construction
6 Food Manufacturing and Tobacco Processing ??27 ??Transport and Storage
7 Textile Industry ??28 ??Postal Services
8 Garments and Other Fiber Products, Leather, Furs, Down and Related Products ??29 ??Information Transfer, Computer Services and Software Industry
9 Timber Processing and Furniture Manufacturing ??30 ??Wholesale and Retail Trade Services
10 Papermaking and Paper Products, Printing and Record Processing, Stationery, Education and Sports Goods ??31 ??Accommodation and Catering Services
11 Petroleum Processing, Coking Products and Nuclear Fuel Processing ??32 ??Finance
12 Chemical Products Related Industry ??33 ??Real Estate
13 Nonmetal Mineral Products ??34 ??Tenancy and Business Services
14 Metals Smelting and Pressing ??35 ??Research and Development Services
15 Metal Products ??36 ??Integrated Technology Services
16 Manufacturing of Ordinary Machinery and Equipment for Special Purpose ??37 ??Management of Water Conservancy, Environment and Public Facilities
17 Transportation Equipment Manufacturing ??38 ??Resident Services and Other Service Activities
18 Electric Machinery and Equipment ??39 ??Educational Services
19 Telecommunication Equipment, Computer and Other Electronic Equipment Manufacturing ??40 ??Sanitation, Social Security and Welfare
20 Instruments, Meters, Cultural and Office Machinery ??41 ??Culture, Sports and Recreation Services
21 Handicraft Article and Other Manufacturing Activities ??42 ??Public Administration and Social Organizations
Tab.2  42 sectors in Hubei Province’s economic input-output table 2002
Sector code Sector content ?Sector code ?Sector content
1 Coal Mining and Dressing ?21 ?Medical and pharmaceutical Products
2 Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction ?22 ?Chemical Fibers
3 Ferrous Metals Mining and Dressing ?23 ?Rubber Products
4 Nonferrous Metals Mining and Dressing ?24 ?Plastic Products
5 Nonmetal Minerals Mining and Dressing ?25 ?Nonmetal Mineral Products
6 Other Minerals Mining and Dressing ?26 ?Smelting and Pressing of ferrous Metals
7 Food Processing ?27 ?Smelting and Pressing of Nonferrous Metals
8 Food Production ?28 ?Metal Products
9 Beverage Production ?29 ?Ordinary Machinery Manufacturing
10 Tobacco Processing ?30 ?Special Purpose Equipment Manufacturing
11 Textile Industry ?31 ?Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
12 Textile Garments, Shoes and Hats Products ?32 ?Electric Machinery and Equipment
13 Leather, Furs, Down and Related Products ?33 ?Telecommunication Equipment, Computer and Other Electronic Equipment Manufacturing
14 Timber Processing and Wood, Bamboo, Rattan, Palm and Straw Works ?34 ?Instruments, Meters, Cultural and Office Machinery
15 Furniture Manufacturing ?35 ?Handicraft Article and Other Manufacturing Activities
16 Papermaking and Paper Products ?36 ?Waste Resources and Junk Material Recycled
17 Printing and Record Medium Reproduction ?37 ?Electric Power, Heat Production and Supply
18 Stationery, Education and Sports Goods ?38 ?Gas Production and Supply
19 Petroleum Processing, Coking Products and Nuclear Fuel Processing ?39 ?Tap Water Production and Supply
20 Raw Chemical Material and Chemical Products
Tab.3  Sectors in HSY (2003)
Sector code in Hubei IOT 2002 Sector code in HSY (2003)
2 1
3 2
4 3+4
5 5+6
6 7+8+9+10
7 11
8 12+13
9 14+15
10 16+17+18
11 19
12 20+21+22+23+24
13 25
14 26+27
15 28
16 29+30
17 31
18 32
19 33
20 34
21 35
22 36
23 37
24 38
25 39
Tab.4  Sector aggregation
Fig.1  The structure of direct CO2 emissions by fuel type in 2002.
Fig.2  The structure of direct CO2 emissions by fuel type in 2005.
Fig.3  The structure of direct CO2 emissions by fuel type in 2007.
Fuel category 2002 2005 2007
Raw coal 77,218.46 138,708.17 139,982.16
Cleaned coal 555.77 641.58 1197.35
Other washed coal 0.00 22.96 28.51
Briquettes 0.00 0.00 795.99
Coke 16,093.40 20,822.51 24,971.78
Coke oven gas 1049.33 2387.30 659.42
Crude oil 53.08 182.55 293.30
Gasoline 6357.49 11,016.41 14,399.82
Kerosene 531.16 665.26 961.21
Diesel oil 7355.88 12,510.35 15,387.47
Fuel oil 1819.81 3481.52 3785.41
Lpg 263.05 396.79 450.99
Refinery gas 526.64 762.26 667.64
Natural gas 198.95 898.53 1158.69
Other petroleum products 1942.60 3950.92 4640.55
Other coking products 497.07 203.19 1039.63
Total emissions 114,462.69 196,650.31 210,419.93
Tab.5  Direct CO2 emissions by 16 fuel types in Hubei 2002–2007 (Unit: kt)
Fig.4  The sectoral direct CO2 emissions in Hubei 2002?2007.
Fig.5  Direct CO2 emission intensities for each sector in Hubei 2002?2007.
Fig.6  The direct CO2 emissions for three major industries in Hubei 2002?2007.
Fig.7  The direct emission intensities for three major industries in Hubei 2002?2007.
Fig.8  The embodied CO2 emission intensities for 42 sectors in Hubei 2002?2007.
Fig.9  The embodiment of CO2 emission in trade balance.
Final use 2002 2005 2007
Emission/Mt Fraction/% Emission/Mt Fraction/% Emission/Mt Fraction/%
Rural 18.86 11.92 21.96 8.01 20.93 7.10
Urban 28.84 18.23 56.91 20.76 60.86 20.65
Government 6.00 3.79 12.94 4.72 12.48 4.23
Fixed capital formation 47.43 29.98 103.96 37.93 94.86 32.19
Inventory increase 9.22 5.83 3.40 1.24 3.41 1.16
Export 47.86 30.25 74.94 27.34 102.17 34.67
Total 158.21 100.00 274.10 100.00 294.71 100.00
Tab.6  The distribution of embodied CO2 emissions by final use in Hubei
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