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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (6) : 976-987     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11705-019-1897-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Kombucha SCOBY-based carbon and graphene oxide wrapped sulfur/polyacrylonitrile as a high-capacity cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries
Krishnaveni Kalaiappan1, Subadevi Rengapillai1, Sivakumar Marimuthu1(), Raja Murugan2, Premkumar Thiru2
1. Energy Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Science Block, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630003 Tamil Nadu, India
2. Electrochemical Power Systems Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, 630003 Tamil Nadu, India
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Abstract

Hierarchically-porous carbon nano sheets were prepared as a conductive additive for sulfur/polyacrylonitrile (S/PAN) composite cathodes using a simple heat treatment. In this study, kombucha (that was derived from symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast) carbon (KC) and graphene oxide (GO) were used as a carbon host matrix. These rational-designed S/PAN/KC/GO hybrid composites greatly suppress the diffusion of polysulfides by providing strong physical and chemical adsorption. The cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 1652 mAh·g−1 at a 0.1 C rate and a 100th cycle capacity of 1193 mAh·g−1. The nano sheets with embedded hierarchical pores create a conductive network that provide effective electron transfer and fast electrochemical kinetics. Further, the nitrogen component of PAN can raise the affinity/interaction of the carbon host with lithium polysulfides, supporting the cyclic performance. The results exploit the cumulative contribution of both the conductive carbon matrix and PAN in the enhanced performance of the positive electrode.

Keywords sulfur cathode      kombucha SCOBY      graphene oxide      polyacrylonitrile      lithium-sulfur battery     
Corresponding Author(s): Sivakumar Marimuthu   
Just Accepted Date: 10 January 2020   Online First Date: 23 March 2020    Issue Date: 11 September 2020
 Cite this article:   
Krishnaveni Kalaiappan,Subadevi Rengapillai,Sivakumar Marimuthu, et al. Kombucha SCOBY-based carbon and graphene oxide wrapped sulfur/polyacrylonitrile as a high-capacity cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries[J]. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(6): 976-987.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/10.1007/s11705-019-1897-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/Y2020/V14/I6/976
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Krishnaveni Kalaiappan
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Raja Murugan
Premkumar Thiru
Sample C/mol-% H/mol-% N/mol-% S/mol-%
S/PAN/KC 37.43 0.86 4.82 40.28
S/PAN/GO 37.10 1.00 4.40 52.42
S/PAN/KC/GO 37.5 0.6 5.8 55.4
Tab.1  CHNS elemental composition of the S/PAN/KC, S/PAN/GO and S/PAN/KC/GO composites
Fig.1  Scheme 1 Preparation of S/PAN/KC/GO composite cathode material.
Fig.2  (a) XRD patterns of sulfur, PAN, KC, GO, S/PAN/GO, S/PAN/KC and S/PAN/KC/GO composites; (b) Raman spectra of sulfur, S/PAN/KC/GO, S/PAN/GO and S/PAN/KC composites.
Fig.3  SEM images of (a) KC, (b) GO, (c and d) S/PAN/GO, (e and f) S/PAN/KC, and (g and h) S/PAN/KC/GO composite; TEM images of (i) S/PAN/GO, (j) S/PAN/KC, and (k and l) S/PAN/KC/GO composite.
Fig.4  (a) Pore-size distribution of KC and GO; (b) N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms of S/PANKC, S/PAN/GO, and S/PAN/KC/GO.
Fig.5  XPS survey spectra of (a) S/PAN/KC/GO; (b–e) S 2p, C 1s, O 1s, and N 1s spectra, respectively.
Fig.6  (a,c) The first three cycles of a cyclic voltammogram recorded for S/PAN/GO and S/PAN/KC/GO, respectively; (b) The first five cycles of a cyclic voltammogram recorded for S/PAN/KC.
Fig.7  (a) First-cycle charge-discharge profiles of S/PAN/GO, S/PAN/KC, and S/PAN/KC/GO cells at a 0.1 C rate; discharge/charge voltage profiles of (b) S/PAN/GO, (c) S/PAN/KC, and (d) S/PAN/KC/GO composite.
No. Cathode materials Initial discharge capacity/(mAh·g?1) C rate Capacity(nth cycle)/(mAh·g?1) Capacity retention Ref.
1 S/CPAN-800 1585 0.1 862(100) 54.3 [57]
2 S/PPNC-650 1357.8 0.1 729(100) 53.6 [58]
3 S/PAN/AB 1330 0.1 571(50) 42.9 [36]
4 S/CNT@rGO 1299 0.2 670(100) 51.5 [59]
5 HPNC-S 834 0.2 520(300) 62.3 [12]
6 S/PCNS 1600 0.1 554(50) 34.6 [60]
7 S/ACF 1258 0.2 750(100) 59.6 [61]
8 BHPC-850 1265 643(50) 50.8 [62]
9 PAN/S/AB 1380 0.1 620(50) 44.6 [39]
10 CCS 1318 0.5 811(100) 61.5 [63]
11 S/HPC 1377 0.1 753 54.6 [64]
12 S/HPCNF 1198 0.2 620(100) 51.7 [65]
13 S/HPC(poplar catkin) 1318 0.1 850(100) 64.4 [66]
14 AB/S@G 1603.5 0.1 824.6(100) 51.4 [67]
15 NanoS@G 1400 0.2 720(100) 51.4 [68]
16 NOPC/S 1185.4 0.2 757.9(100) 63.9 [69]
17 S/PAN/KC/GO 1652 0.1 1193(100) 72.2 This work
Tab.2  Comparison of S/PAN/KC/GO electrochemical performance to previously reported composite cathode materials for Li-S batteries
Fig.8  (a) Cycling performance of S/PAN/GO, S/PAN/KC, and S/PAN/KC/GO composite cathodes at a 0.1 C rate; (b) rate capability profiles of S/PAN/KC, S/PAN/GO, and S/PAN/KC/GO composites; (c) Nyquist plots for S/PAN/KC, S/PAN/GO, and S/PAN/KC/GO composites.
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