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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (4) : 471-491     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11705-019-1847-7
REVIEW ARTICLE
Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ethanol and other C1-4 oxygenates over Ag/Al2O3 catalysts: A review
Pavlo I. Kyriienko()
L.V. Pisarzhevskii Institute of Physical Chemistry of the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv 03028, Ukraine
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Abstract

Research results regarding selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ethanol and other C1-4 oxygenates as reductants over silver-alumina catalysts are summarized. The aspects of the process mechanism, nature of active sites, role of alumina and silver (especially in the formation of bifunctional active sites), effects of reductants and reaction conditions are discussed. It has been determined that key stages of the process include formation of reactive enolic species, their interaction with NOx and formation of nitroorganic compounds which transform to NCOads species and further to N2. The results obtained over various silver-alumina catalysts demonstrate the perspectives of their application for reducing the level of nitrogen oxides in engine emissions, including in the presence of water vapor and sulfur oxides. Ways to improve the catalysts for the SCR of NOx with C1-4 oxygenates are outlined.

Keywords SCR      nitrogen oxides      silver-alumina catalyst      silver species      ethanol      oxygenates     
Corresponding Author(s): Pavlo I. Kyriienko   
Just Accepted Date: 10 October 2019   Online First Date: 29 November 2019    Issue Date: 22 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Pavlo I. Kyriienko. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ethanol and other C1-4 oxygenates over Ag/Al2O3 catalysts: A review[J]. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 471-491.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/10.1007/s11705-019-1847-7
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/Y2020/V14/I4/471
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Catalyst Reductant XNOmax (%)/TNOmax (K) a) Δ2/3 (K) b) Ref.
3% Ag/Al2O3 ethanol 83/573 518–698 [35]
3% Fe/Al2O3 27/573 473–798
3% Cu/Al2O3 20/573 553–633
3% Al2O3 20/573 573–798
1% Ag/Al2O3 DME 87/573 260–653 [36]
1% Pd/Al2O3 79/523 [53] c) 220–573
1% Rh/Al2O3 74/573 [29] c) 230–593
1%Pt/Al2O3 53/523 [46] c) 200–623 d)
Al2O3 93/673 330–673 d)
3% Ag/Al2O3/cordierite methanol 40/673 643–723 [163]
3% Ag/MOR/cordierite 18/673 633–723
3% Ag/ZSM-5/cordierite 18/673 623–723
2% Ag/Al2O3 ethanol 82/623 533–733 [37]
2% Ag/TiO2 67/723 633–648
2% Ag/SiO2 2/623
2.5% Ag/Al2O3 ethanol 90/673 548–698 [38]
3% Ag/ceria–zirconia 52/623 573–773
3% Ag/sulphated ceria–zirconia 32/623 573–698
4% Ag/H-MFI 30/573 423–773
Tab.1  Activity of the catalysts, containing silver or alumina, in HCO-SCR of NOx process
Catalyst Reaction mixture Reductant XNOmax (%)/TNOmax (°C)a) Ref.
2% Ag/Al2O3 1000 ppm NO, 10% O2; 10000 h−1 900 ppm of ethanol 86/623−673 [30]
1500 ppm of methanol 23/523
1000 ppm of propene 70/723
5% Ag/Al2O3 800 ppm NO, 10% O2, 10% H2O; 50000 h−1 1565 ppm of ethanol 99/623 [70]
1565 ppm of acetaldehyde 99/623
1714 ppm of propene 90/753
1565 ppm of acetic acid 57/633
4% Ag/Al2O3 500 ppm NO, 10% O2, 5% H2O; 50000 h−1 3000 ppm C1 (ethanol) 99/613 [79]
3000 ppm C1 (750 ppm of ethanol+ 500 ppm of C3H6) 82/613
3000 ppm C1 (85% of ethanol+ 15% of gasoline) 97/613
3000 ppm C1 (50% of ethanol+ 50% of gasoline) 95/643
2% Ag/Al2O3 500 ppm NO, 15% O2, 10% H2O; 200000 h−1 1200 ppm of ethanol 100 [88]b)/623 [74]
400 ppm of C8H18 96 [85]b)/673
Ag/Al2O3 200 ppm NO, 6% O2, 2.5% H2O; 14000 h−1 400 ppm of ethanol, 67 ppm of dodecane (C1/NOx = 8) 100 [65]b)/623 [142]
133 ppm of dodecane (C1/NOx = 8) 100 [90]b)/673
2% Ag/Al2O3 720 ppm NO, 4.3% O2, 7.2% CO2, 7.2% H2O; 60000 h−1 4340 ppm C1 (n-octane), 4340 ppm of methanol 95/548 [143]
4340 ppm C1 (toluene), 4340 ppm of methanol 95/573
4340 ppm C1 (n-octane) 90/673
4340 ppm C1 (toluene) 85/773
4340 ppm of methanol 10/523
2% Ag/Al2O3 400 ppm NO, 500 ppm CO, 167 ppm H2, 8% O2, 10% H2O, 10% CO2; 150000 h−1 1200 ppm of ethanol 100/623 [64]
1200 ppm of acetaldehyde 100/723
1200 ppm of ethylene 30/823
0.3% Ag/46%Al2O3/
cordierite
500 ppm NO, 10% O2, 2% H2O; 50000 h−1 1000 ppm of ethanol 95/623 [25]
1000 ppm of acetaldehyde 99/673
1000 ppm of ethylene 60/773
Tab.2  Activity of various silver-alumina catalysts in HC/HCO-SCR of NOx process. Effect of the reductant nature.
Fig.1  Scheme 1. General mechanism scheme of HCO-SCR of NOx over silver-alumina catalysts.
Fig.2  
Fig.3  Effect of the alumina surface properties of Ag/Al2O3 catalysts on the N2 and NH3 production during the ethanol-SCR of NOx. (a) Conversion of NO to N2; (b) Conversion of NO to NH3, (c) Concentration of LAS on surface of the Ag/A1−A5 catalysts where A1 was alumina prepared by aluminum sec-butoxide hydrolysis, A2 was alumina prepared by precipitation from Al(NO3)3, and A3−A5 was commercial alumina samples. Adapted from Ref. [97], Copyright (2011), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig.4  Dependencies of NO conversion on temperature over 0.3% Ag/Al2O3/cordierite catalysts with different content of alumina in SCR of NOx with HCO in reaction mixture: (a) 500 ppm NO, 2000 ppm C1-C2H5OH, 5% O2, 20000 h−1 (made based on data from [99]); (b) 500 ppm –NO, 2000 ppm C1-C4H9OH, 10% O2, 30000 h−1 (own previously unpublished data).
Fig.5  Effect of silver loading (%) in Ag/Al2O3 for ethanol-SCR of NOx. Reaction mixture: 800 ppm of NO, 1565 ppm of ethanol, 10% of O2, 10% of H2O in N2 at 100000 h1. Adapted with permission from Ref. [107]. Copyright (2019) American Chemical Society.
Fig.6  Scheme 2 Mechanistic scheme of alcohols activation throw adsorption and partial oxidation on bifunctional silver sites. Adapted from Ref. [108], Copyright (2013), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig.7  Scheme 3 Mechanistic scheme of NCOads formation on silver-alumina catalysts. Adapted from Ref. [96] with permission from The American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Fig.8  DeNOx activity of Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with methanol, ethanol and isopropanol (800 ppm of NO, 10% of O2, 2250 ppm of methanol/1565 ppm of ethanol/1200 ppm of iso-propanol; 50000 h−1). Adapted from Ref. [62], Copyright (2005), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig.9  Dependencies of NO conversion on temperature in SCR of NO with alcohols: (a) 0.3% Ag/45% Al2O3/cordierite catalysts, 500 ppm of NO, 1000 ppm of ethanol or 500 ppm of 1-butanol, 10% O2; 30000 h1. Adapted from Ref. [108], Copyright (2013), with permission from Elsevier.; (b) 2% Ag/Al2O3, 500 ppm of NO, 1250 ppm of ethanol or 1250 ppm of iso-butanol 10% of O2, 5% of H2O, 35000 h1. Adapted from Ref. [130], Copyright (2013), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig.10  Dependencies of NO conversion on temperature with different reductants in SCR-process. Condition: catalyst, 2% Ag/Al2O3 coated onto ceramic monolith substrates (Ø = 115 mm, L= 75 mm, high cell density= 600 cpsi), 300 ppm of NO, HC:NOx = 3:1, 30000 h−1; GTL: gas-to-liquid; ULSD: ultra low sulphur diesel. Adapted from Ref. [81], Copyright (2014), with permission from Elsevier.
Reductant Conversion NO to N2/% (without/with H2)
523 K 573 K 623 K
Diethyl ether 28/100 91/100 90/97
Ethyl tert-butyl ether 20/73 72/77 72/78
Ethanol 7/47 52/60 67/76
2-Propanol 34/56 58/58 62/73
1-Propanol 17/34 44/50 73/78
t-Butanol 22/43 38/90 89/86
Ethyl acetate 5/41 27/73 77/78
Acetone 0/13 9/76 57/72
1-Propanal 9/6 45/45 72/93
Propane (for comparison) 0/51 0/69 48/97
Tab.3  H2-effect on NO conversion in HCO-SCR of NOxwith different reductants over 2% Ag/Al2O3 catalysta)
Reaction mixture H2O/% T50/K* XNOmax/%/TNOmax/K** Ref.
800 ppm NO, 2400 ppm ethanol, 10% O2; 40000 h−1 583 95/653 [154]
10 633 95/753
800 ppm NO, 1565 ppm ethanol, 10% O2; 300000 h−1 598 90/723 [153]
0.5 603 90/773
1.0 673 90/773
10 723 75/773
500 ppm NO, 1000 ppm ethanol, 10% O2; 30000 h−1 97/523 [108]
6 94/598
500 ppm NO, 1000 ppm 1-butanol, 10% O2; 30000 h−1 503 97/553
6 483 88/573
Tab.4  Activity of the silver-alumina catalysts in HC/HCO-SCR of NOxprocess
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