China has formed a national emergency management system consisting of “one contingency plan and three sets of institutions” since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. This system is further improved after the establishment of the Ministry of Emergency Management in 2018 and the great achievements made in the fight against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to improve China’s public health emergency command system via investigating the history, current status, and challenges of the system. In this article, we summarize the emergency command systems responding to the SARS outbreak, the H1N1 2009 pandemic, and the COVID-19 pandemic using literature research, theoretical analysis, and case comparison. China’s public health emergency command system played a significant role in dealing with these public health emergencies and has been increasingly improved; however, it still faces various challenges. Therefore, we propose several policy suggestions to address these challenges, which involve the aspects of joint prevention and control mechanism, system of law for public health emergencies, advisory board, and central–local relations.
In this article, we expound the important role of an emergency rescue system in handling public health emergencies, summarize the characteristics of China’s fight against the COVID-19 epidemic from the perspective of emergency rescue capacity building, and reflect on the experiences and lessons regarding emergency rescue to combat the epidemic. This study is expected to help improve relevant national policies and systems, strengthen the health protection net for the people, and maintain a sound environment for national security development in China. Moreover, we summarize the main contents and characteristics of the three stages for developing China’s emergency rescue system and analyze the existing problems from three aspects: mechanism, resources, and overall level. Furthermore, we propose several specific countermeasures and suggestions for the construction of the emergency rescue system for public health emergencies in China from the aspects of handling modes, scientific layout and function promotion, talent team construction, emergency material support, grass-roots capacity building, multi-disciplinary integration, scientific research–disease control–clinical treatment coordination, wartime mobilization mechanism, international cooperation, and action outline formulation.
Public health emergencies severely affect people’s lives and health, national security, social stability, and economic development. Against the background of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, this study analyzes the current status of China’s public health emergency prevention and control system from the aspects of its six major systems: monitoring, early warning, and evaluation; diagnosis and treatment; basic scientific research; personnel training; material, equipment, and industry support; and social mobilization and coordinated action. We conclude that strengthening system construction is a realistic demand of China in the new development stage. China’s public health system still faces challenges regarding institutional positioning, capacity building, hardware investment, and management system. Therefore, we propose that China should establish a national overall coordination and emergency command mechanism, strengthen clinical, science, education, and industrial support capacity, and further promote international cooperation.
As public health emergencies become increasingly complex and frequent worldwide, modernization of the public health emergency system is urgently required for improving the overall security level of a country; it is also crucial for the modernization of the national governance system. In this study, we summarize China’s response to public health emergencies from three aspects: epidemic surveillance and reporting system, sentinel surveillance and multipoint trigger mechanism, and mobile terminal application for individuals. Moreover, we explore the development paths for precise control and integrated management of public health emergencies and propose corresponding suggestions. Specifically, precision control can be realized by combining the following aspects: temporal and spatial modeling and calculation for the epidemic, epidemic data collection and information statistics, grassroots community prevention and control, and emergency resource supply. Integrated management should focus on: collection and perception of social governance information, data analysis and calculation platforms, rapid response and command at the grassroots level, epidemic monitoring/early warning/prediction, and continuous risk assessment. Furthermore, we suggest that China should strengthen information technology to enable epidemic prevention and control, improve its epidemic monitoring and reporting system, and build an integrated prevention and control system for public health governance.
An informationtized, digitalized, and intelligent emergency response mode is currently required in China to address the weaknesses and low efficiency in public health emergency management in the aspects of quick response mechanism, multi-department collaboration, and information interaction; this new mode can promote the response capabilities of China’s public security sector. A descriptive research method is adopted to analyze the status quo of public health emergency response systems and intelligent emergency response development in other countries, and summarize the requirements, current status, and main problems of health emergency management in China. The development goals, major research tasks, and technological approaches are further proposed. To develop a preventative public health emergency response network in China, we suggest that a major national biological monitoring and early-warning project should be established for health emergency response, relevant laws and regulations promulgated and revised, data integration and sustainable development of the emergency management mechanism maintained, an intelligent health emergency response industry encouraged, and professionals for medical care and preventative medicine integrated.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused severe human casualties and economic losses. Strengthening research on the coordination of public health security emergency information and building a more efficient and credible emergency information sharing system have become the core issues to optimize the public health security information management in China. This study analyzes the structure and connotations of public health security emergency information and proposes a new structure for emergency information management of sudden epidemics in China. We create a hierarchical blockchain model for information sharing among emergency response departments based on the blockchain distributed trust mechanism and elaborate the emergency information consortium blockchain, block structure, and implementation of the side chain interaction mechanism. Moreover, the uploading, sharing, downloading, and backtracking processes of emergency information are presented. Using the COVID-19 epidemic control in Nanjing as an example, we verify the validity of this model through scenario simulation and propose policy recommendations for responding to the epidemic. This study is expected to provide a decision-making reference and feasible path for building a new public health information system in China that meets the needs of prevention and control of major epidemics.
The microbial industry is a strategic emerging industry and it is an important field for developing new growth drivers and for creating new global competitive advantages. In the face of the great opportunity to promote the construction of Healthy China, the development of the microbial industry is significant for regional scientific and technological innovation, high-quality industrial development, and improvement of people’s welfare in China. The study expounded the macro-demand for the development of microbial industry and analyzed the development status of the global microbial industry in terms of industrial layout and technological progress. The study further outlined the development trend of the microbial industry in China from the aspects of industrial policy environment and industrial scale, investigated the development status of industrial segmentation directions including microbial safety, microbial health, microbial manufacturing, and microbial medicine, and dissected the challenges in the development of the industry. Our findings indicated that structuring systematic big science facilities, developing a series of industrialized technologies, and promoting the industrial application of microbial resources are key initiatives to accelerate the development of the microbial industry in China. We proposed to strengthen the research and development of key core technologies of the microbial high-tech industry, promote the establishment of an industrial policy system for collaborative innovation and development, and build industrial clusters centering around microbial innovation platforms, all of which will greatly improve the development level of microbial industry in China.
The microbial manufacturing industry is developing rapidly in China owing to the policy of “green production, energy saving, and emission reduction”. This industry involves agriculture, food, energy, chemical, and other fields and generates great economic benefits and social values. In this article, we describe the development trend of the global microbial manufacturing industry, summarize the development status of China’s microbial manufacturing industry in the fields of fermented food, biological fertilizer, enzyme preparation, bio-based material, and biomass energy, and analyze the opportunities and challenges of the industry in China. The research technology of China’s microbial manufacturing industry is constantly reforming and innovating, the production level of some major fermentation industries ranks among the top in the world, new strains and products continue to increase, and the scale of industrial production is gradually expanding. However, China’s microbial manufacturing industry still lacks independence regarding core strains, cutting-edge scientific research technologies, and key production equipment. Moreover, we suggest that China’s microbial manufacturing industry should improve its independent research and development capabilities, strengthen cross-industry innovation, develop intelligent equipment for industrial production, and accelerate the transformation of scientific research results.
The microbial sourced natural products possess diverse structures and excellent activities, implying great potentials for clinical application. This study systematically analyzes the current status of the microbial medicine industry in China and summarizes the development trends of the industry from the aspects of microbial strain resource utilization, excellent strain screening, fermentation process optimization, strain engineering, and new microbial medicine development. This aims to facilitate major breakthroughs and industrial upgrades for China’s microbial medicine industry. Although China’s microbial medicine industry has solid resource and technical foundations, it still lags behind the international advanced level. Considering the opportunities and challenges, we propose several suggestions for promoting China’s microbial medicine industry: constructing large-scale scientific facilities for microbial medicine, strengthening basic research and independent technology development, establishing a talent cultivation system, and formulating systematic industrial incentives.
Microbial safety is crucial for China’s social and economic development in the new era, and it is an important support for national food security, public health, and social stability. In this article, we analyze the development needs and current status of the microbial safety industry considering the policy environment in China. Subsequently, we clarify the domestic and global development patterns of the industry and summarize the challenges faced by the innovation and application of pathogenic microorganism detection and control technologies in China. Furthermore, we propose a development plan for building China’s microbial safety industry. To explore a high-quality development path, China should build innovation platforms and a large scientific database regarding microbial safety, enhance personnel development for this industry, encourage leading enterprises to develop according to standards and regulations, and strengthen major system innovation and engineering technology research in the microbial safety field.
As the most widely distributed and abundant biological resources in the world, microbial resources have been applied in many fields and shown great economic and social values. Although there have been numerous previous studies on microorganisms, the studies could not be further launched owing to limited technical methods. However, the continuous development of microbial detection technologies now provides new approaches for microbial research. In this article, we summarize the molecular identification technologies and their application for microbial resources in China and abroad; these technologies include deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (G+C) mol% identification, nucleic acid hybridization, DNA fingerprinting, nucleic acid amplification, gene chips, and high throughput sequencing. Moreover, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each technology and analyze the problems faced by molecular identification of microbial resources, including reliance on laboratory environment, insufficient reproducibility and accuracy of experimental results, and lack of microbial databases. To protect and utilize microbial resources, China should strengthen the research of each identification technology, establish a microbial resource identification platform with independent intellectual property rights, and improve the microbial resource database.
Energy storage safety is an important component of national energy security and economic development; it has significant impacts on national security, sustainable development, and social stability. The sodium battery technology is considered as one of the most promising grid-scale energy storage technologies owing to its high power density, high energy density, low cost, and high safety. In this article, we highlight the technical advantages and application scenarios of typical sodium battery systems, including sodiumsulfur batteries and sodium-metal chloride batteries. Moreover, we propose the possible development directions of sodium battery technology in China. Furthermore, we suggest supporting the fundamental research and engineering development for sodium batteries, promoting the aggregation of related upstream and downstream industries, and establishing related standards and a performance evaluation platform. These aim to improve the R&D level and technology maturity of China’s sodium battery technologies and provide alternative and reliable choices for the safe energy supply in China.
Energy resource-consuming industries such as coal, coking, and steel, are crucial for socio-economic development; however, they are also related to high energy consumption and environmental pollution. As carbon peak and carbon neutral goals were porposed, it becomes increasingly urgent to accelerate the revolution of energy production and consumption in China. To this end, we investigate the current status of coal-based hydrogen production technologies and propose a coal–coking–hydrogen–steel industrial chain in this study. The industrial chain is proposed considering the resource endowment, environmental capacity, and industry foundation in China, and it is expected to be green, low-carbon, secure, and highly efficient. Subsequently, we compare and evlatuate five technological paths for this industry chain from the aspects of economy, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, and analyze the potentials and path choices for coupling hydrogen production with direct reduced iron. Moreover, we elaborate the strategic goals and whole layout of the coal–coking–hydrogen–steel industry chain using Shanxi Province as an example. Furthermore, we suggest that a clean and lowcarbon development concept should be established to promote energy transformation in China, an overall development plan should be formulated for the industry chain, and policies, science, technologies, personnels, and market should be further integrated.
An air–ground collaborative multi-modal intelligent robot system can adapt to air and ground environments, has multimodal characteristic and advanced intelligence, and is able to complete complex tasks. The system has broad application prospects in various fields of society and is a new driving force for global technological, social, and economic development. Considering the major demand for developing the air–ground collaborative multi-modal intelligent robot system in China, this study comprehensively analyzes the development status of the system in China and abroad and the existing problems in China. China currently lags behind the international advanced level in terms of the air–ground collaborative intelligent robot system development; however, it still has the opportunity to achieve the advanced level as the system is still developing in its infancy in countries worldwide. The system involves theories, key technologies, core components and units, platforms, system equipment, and system applications and aims to build related technical system, core component industry system, intelligent robot equipment system, and social applications. Moreover, we propose the development layout, roadmap, and suggestions for the development of the system. Research shows that the air–ground collaborative multi-modal intelligent robot system can be integrated into the future smart society in all aspects and be applied to fields such as smart medical, education, housing, transportation, and manufacturing, to contribute to the national economy and people’s livelihood.
The petrochemical industry is a pillar for China’s economy and a key field for supporting the high-quality development of the manufacturing sector. In this article, we examine China’s petrochemical industry using field research, seminar discussion, and document analysis methods. Although China is at the forefront of petrochemical development worldwide, the development quality of the petrochemical industry still needs to be improved, the product supply is insufficient, and technological innovation is lacking. To promote China’s petrochemical industry up to the middle- and upper-end of the global industrial and value chains, the top-level design should be improved to upgrade the industry in terms of quality and efficiency, and a market-oriented capacity control mechanism should be established to shift the driving forces for development. Moreover, China should focus on technological innovation to promote the core competitiveness of the industry; optimize its domestic business environment to facilitate fair competition; improve environmental policies to promote the safe and green transformation of the petrochemical industry; and deepen international cooperation among countries along the Belt and Road.
As China develops toward a high-quality stage and the carbon peak and carbon neutral targets are proposed, a new green and low-carbon development pattern is urgently required. Coal is the primary energy of China and it provides a solid guarantee for the stable operation of the economy; however, the coal industry in China is unbalanced and insufficient in terms of efficiency, technology, market, safety, environment, and other aspects and it can no longer satisfy the new requirements for high-quality energy development and active response to climate change. In this article, we analyze the three imbalances and six insufficiencies that coal industry development faces, and define high-quality development of the coal industry considering the new requirements of energy development. Subsequently, we establish a three-level evaluation index system from three aspects of power, quality, and efficiency reforms. The system is also comprised of five dimensions—innovation-driven, intelligence and high efficiency, diversification and economy, safety and health, green and low carbon—and 23 indexes. Moreover, we evaluate the development level of the coal industry in China using the comprehensive evaluation method of GRA-TOPSIS. The development of an innovation-driven green and intelligent development system, a collaborative and integrated green and low-carbon development system, a market system with orderly competition, a comprehensive open system with win-win cooperation, and a high-quality talent team system has become the key task for the highquality development of the coal industry. Furthermore, we propose suggestions from the aspects of top-level institutional arrangement, carbon reduction in coal industry, and coal production and demand balance.
High-quality development is and will remain the theme of China’s economic and social development for a long period of time. The food industry—a pillar for national economy—faces the major demand for high-quality development. In this study, we analyze the concept and significance of high-quality development of food industry from three dimensions: macro level, industry, and enterprise management, and summarize the current status and problems related to the food industry development. Subsequently, we build an evaluation index system using the statistical yearbook data; we use this system to study the development level of the food industry in recent years and comprehensively evaluate the development quality of the industry. Moreover, we propose a high-quality development path for China’s food industry in terms of policy, science and technology, platform, talent team, ecosystem, and shared manufacturing. To promote high-quality development of food industry, China should improve the system and mechanism for the innovative development of the industry, adhere to green development, strengthen the research and development of core technologies and special equipment for food industry, establish a platform system and mechanism, and build a food science and technology talent team.
Forestalling a large-scale reemergence of poverty is a basic task in the 14th Five-Year Plan period, which entails consolidating and expanding the achievements in poverty alleviation. This means we should manage the risks of people returning to poverty and enhance tiered and targeted assistance of various types to low-income residents, striving for a robust long-term mechanism of poverty reduction. In this paper, we first analyze the main challenges faced by consolidating and expanding the achievements of the battle against poverty in the new development stage. Among others, populations that have been lifted out of poverty falling back into it is complicated in causes, and industries in rural areas are short of sustainable development capacity. Other challenges remain, such as deficient rural medical services, drinking water safety in areas that have shaken off poverty, and outdated rural governance that is out of tune with the new situation. Subsequently, we summarize the basic logic of consolidating and expanding the achievements in poverty alleviation. We put forward three key tasks concerning increasing the institutional supply, relieving resources and environmental constraints, and stimulating endogenous impetus for those who have been lifted out of poverty. Lastly, we propose policy suggestions on consolidating and expanding the achievements in poverty alleviation from five aspects, including building an identification mechanism of low-income rural residents, promoting the performance of rural industries, improving governance capacity in rural areas, conducting rural doctors training programs, and ensuring drinking water safety.
Healthcare is an important component for poverty alleviation in China, and it requires constant efforts as this sector in the rural areas in China will remain underdeveloped and short of high-quality resources for a long time. Moreover, promoting healthy village construction is crucial for consolidating and expanding the key achievements obtained in poverty alleviation and for implementing the rural revitalization strategy in China. This study uses policy research, field research, data analysis, and expert discussion methods. We first summarize the practical needs for promoting healthy village construction and present the achievements and main problems regarding healthcare improvement for poverty alleviation. Subsequently, we explore the development objectives and key tasks for healthy village construction and propose several countermeasures prospectively. To prevent the population that have been lifted out of poverty from returning to it due to illness and better meet their diverse needs for health, we suggest that China should (1) increase government financial investment and scientifically optimize the layout of health resources and human resources; (2) provide health services based on the whole life cycle and the whole process of health; (3) maximize the unique advantages of traditional Chinese medicine to draw a bottom line for epidemic prevention and control in rural areas; (4) ensure drug security based on the healthcare service coordination mechanism within the country region; (5) establish a regional adjustment and balancing mechanism for medical insurance funds to ensure the accuracy and fairness of health policies; and (6) conduct rural doctors training programs.
Ensuring the safety of rural drinking water is a basic component of poverty alleviation in China. Studying the strategy for ensuring drinking water safety in areas that were lifted out of poverty is important for consolidating poverty alleviation achievements and promoting rural revitalization in China. In this article, we study the current situation and problems of rural drinking water in poverty alleviation areas, analyze the causes of the problems, and propose strategic objectives and pathways from the aspects of engineering, policy, and mechanism. To guarantee the safety supply of rural drinking water in poverty alleviation areas, we suggest that the drinking water safety policies in these areas should remain stable and constant, the sanitary standards of drinking water in rural areas should be optimized to meet those in urban areas, and a long-term policy focusing on water price should be established for rural water supply.