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Frontiers of Materials Science

Front. Mater. Sci.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (2) : 157-167     DOI: 10.1007/s11706-016-0338-8
Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density
Oleg SMORYGO1,*(),Alexander MARUKOVICH1,Vitali MIKUTSKI1,Vassilis STATHOPOULOS2,Siarhei HRYHORYEU3,Vladislav SADYKOV4,5
1. Powder Metallurgy Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 41 Platonov Str., Minsk 220005, Belarus
2. Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, Psahna Evias 34400, Greece
3. Belarusian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosty Ave., Minsk 220013, Belarus
4. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Sibrian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 5 Lavrentiev Ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
5. Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova Str., 630009, Novosibirsk, Russia
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Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams were manufactured by multiple replications of a polyurethane foam template structure using ethanolic solutions of phenolic resin. The aims were to create an algorithm of fine tuning the precursor foam density and ensure an open-cell reticulated porous structure in a wide density range. The precursor foams were pyrolyzed in inert atmospheres at 700°C, 1100°C and 2000°C, and RVC foams with fully open cells and tunable bulk densities within 0.09–0.42 g/cm3 were synthesized. The foams were characterized in terms of porous structure, carbon lattice parameters, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and corrosive resistance. The reported manufacturing approach is suitable for designing the foam microstructure, including the strut design with a graded microstructure.

Keywords foam      vitreous carbon      reticulated      cellular structure      pyrolysis     
Corresponding Authors: Oleg SMORYGO   
Online First Date: 13 April 2016    Issue Date: 11 May 2016
 Cite this article:   
Oleg SMORYGO,Alexander MARUKOVICH,Vitali MIKUTSKI, et al. Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2016, 10(2): 157-167.
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Vladislav SADYKOV
Fig.1  Precursor foam densities after impregnation using the bakelite solutions with different concentration.
Fig.2  Precursor foam density vs. the number of additional impregnations at the bakelite solution concentration of 58.3% and the 20 ppi cell size.
Fig.3  TG plots of PUF and bakelite.
Fig.4  XRD patterns of carbons treated at different temperatures.
Treatment temperature /°C Crystallographic parameters
d002 /? d10* /? Lc,002 /? La,10* /?
700 4.07 2.04 181 170
1100 3.93 2.06 209 200
2000 3.54 2.08 251 380
Tab.1  Crystallographic parameters of carbons after treatment at different temperatures
Fig.5  Cellular structures of the prepared RVC foams at densities of (a) 0.062 g/cm3, (b) 0.092 g/cm3 and (c) 0.174?g/cm3. Bulb formation is marked with arrows.
Fig.6  (a) Fractured strut at not hindered gas release, (b) microstructure of the fracture surface and (c) the fractured strut at hindered gas release.
Fig.7  Typical stress–strain curve.
Fig.8  Compressive strength vs. bulk density of the foams prepared at different temperatures.
Fig.9  Compressive modulus vs. bulk density of the foams prepared at different temperatures.
Fig.10  Bending strength vs. bulk density of the prepared foams.
Fig.11  Thermal conductivity vs. bulk density of the prepared foams.
Fig.12  Electric conductivity vs. bulk density of the prepared foams.
Fig.13  Weight losses of the prepared foams in strongly corrosive media.
Fig.14  Surface morphologies of the RVCs after treatments in (a) NaOH, (b) H2SO4 +HNO3, and (c) HF.
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