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Frontiers of Materials Science

Front. Mater. Sci.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (2) : 122-133     DOI: 10.1007/s11706-016-0333-0
Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen
Tong WANG1,Qing LI2,1,3,Gui-feng ZHANG4,Gang ZHOU5,Xin YU5,Jing ZHANG5,Xiu-mei WANG6,Zhi-hui TANG1,3,*()
1. The 2nd Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100101, China
2. Center of Digital Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China
3. National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China
4. Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
5. Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
6. Institute of Regenerative Biomaterials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Bone scaffolds are critical in current implant and periodontal regeneration approaches. In this study, we prepared a novel composite type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP) scaffold (CHTS) by incorporating type-I collagen and bovine calcined bone granules, prepared as a mixture of 50% HA and 50% TCP, by freeze drying. We then characterized the CHTS and determined its cytotoxic effects. Additionally, ridge preservation experiments were carried out to evaluate the clinical effects of the CHTS. The results demonstrated that the composite scaffolds had good surface morphology and no cytotoxicity. Additionally, an in vivo experiment in an animal model showed that the CHTS performed equally as well as Bio-Oss Collagen, a widely used bone graft in ridge preservation. These findings revealed that the CHTS, which contained natural constituents of bone, could be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration and clinical use.

Keywords hydroxyapatite      β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP)      collagen      scaffold      ridge preservation     
Corresponding Authors: Zhi-hui TANG   
Issue Date: 11 May 2016
 Cite this article:   
Tong WANG,Qing LI,Gui-feng ZHANG, et al. Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2016, 10(2): 122-133.
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Qing LI
Gui-feng ZHANG
Xin YU
Xiu-mei WANG
Zhi-hui TANG
Fig.1  Tooth extraction and graft filling.
Fig.2  CBCT images showing the process of measurement of alveolar bone height and width. (a) By rotating and shifting the image, the long axis of the alveolar bone (determined from the long axis of the adjacent tooth) was adjusted to parallel with the green line (coronal slice). (b) The coronal slice. The yellow line indicates the reference plane, and the height of the alveolar bone. (c) At the same sagittal position, the blue line (axial slice) was shifted to make the distance between the axial slice and reference plane a certain value (9, 10 or 11 mm). (d) The axial slice. The yellow line indicates the width of the alveolar bone.
Fig.3  Bone defects preparation and bone graft filling.
Fig.4  Photographs of (a) the CHTS and (b) Bio-Oss Collagen.
Fig.5  SEM images of the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen: (a)(b) morphologies of Bio-Oss Collagen at 200× and 500× magnifications, respectively; (c)(d) morphologies of the CHTS at 200× and 500× magnifications, respectively. The blue arrows indicate collagen fibers, and the red arrows indicate mineral crystals.
Fig.6  (a) FTIR patterns of the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen. Both the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen shared the same organic and inorganic composition. Notes: red line, CHTS; blue line, Bio-Oss Collagen. The dashed lines indicate similar symbolic peaks in both groups: 1030 cm-1, ν3 vibration of PO43-; 602 and 566 cm-1, ν4 vibration of PO43-; 1547 cm-1, amide II; 1600 cm-1, amide I. (b) XRD spectra of the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen. Notes: red line, CHTS; blue line, Bio-Oss Collagen; rhombus symbols indicate the symbolic peaks of HA; dashed at 23.4°–23.7° and 26.9°–27.4° demonstrate the symbolic peaks of β-TCP in CHTS.
Fig.7  The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell on CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen.
Fig.8  CBCT slices at a typical site filled with CHTS: (a) Sagittal slice immediately after surgery; (b) Axial slice immediately after surgery; (c) Sagittal slice 2 months after surgery; (d) Axial slice 2 months after surgery. Notes: yellow points, markers of distance measurement; green lines, socket filled with CHTS; red lines, new bone formation in the socket.
Group Variables
ΔHR /mm ΔWR /mm Density variation /HU
CHTS 0.85±0.46 0.54±0.50 1566±194.66
Bio-Oss Collagen 1.25±0.74 0.67±0.30 1526±184.75
Control 2.11±0.61 1.14±0.59 1118±108.91
Tab.1  Results of variables of alveolar bone preservation in Beagle dogs
Comparison between groups Significances of differences
ΔHR ΔWR Density variation
CHTS vs. Bio-Oss Collagen p = 0.21 p = 0.51 p = 0.57
CHTS vs. Control **p<0.001 *p<0.05 **p<0.001
Bio-Oss Collagen vs. Control *p<0.05 *p<0.05 **p<0.001
Tab.2  Comparison of HR, WR, and density variations among groups
Fig.9  Light microscopic images of toluidine blue-stained ground sections of mandibular bones at 8 weeks after implantation in mandibular defects: (a) CHTS, 10×; (b) CHTS, 20×; (c) Bio-Oss Collagen, 10×; (d) Bio-Oss Collagen, 20×; (e) Blank, 10×; (f) Blank, 20×. Notes: NB, new formed bone; BG, bone graft; HS, Haversian structure system; arrows, the boundary of the bone graft and new osteoid precipitation.
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