Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Materials Science

Front. Mater. Sci.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (2) : 122-133     DOI: 10.1007/s11706-016-0333-0
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen
Tong WANG1,Qing LI2,1,3,Gui-feng ZHANG4,Gang ZHOU5,Xin YU5,Jing ZHANG5,Xiu-mei WANG6,Zhi-hui TANG1,3,*()
1. The 2nd Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100101, China
2. Center of Digital Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China
3. National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China
4. Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
5. Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
6. Institute of Regenerative Biomaterials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Download: PDF(4122 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

Bone scaffolds are critical in current implant and periodontal regeneration approaches. In this study, we prepared a novel composite type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP) scaffold (CHTS) by incorporating type-I collagen and bovine calcined bone granules, prepared as a mixture of 50% HA and 50% TCP, by freeze drying. We then characterized the CHTS and determined its cytotoxic effects. Additionally, ridge preservation experiments were carried out to evaluate the clinical effects of the CHTS. The results demonstrated that the composite scaffolds had good surface morphology and no cytotoxicity. Additionally, an in vivo experiment in an animal model showed that the CHTS performed equally as well as Bio-Oss Collagen, a widely used bone graft in ridge preservation. These findings revealed that the CHTS, which contained natural constituents of bone, could be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration and clinical use.

Keywords hydroxyapatite      β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP)      collagen      scaffold      ridge preservation     
Corresponding Authors: Zhi-hui TANG   
Issue Date: 11 May 2016
 Cite this article:   
Tong WANG,Qing LI,Gui-feng ZHANG, et al. Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2016, 10(2): 122-133.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foms/EN/10.1007/s11706-016-0333-0
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foms/EN/Y2016/V10/I2/122
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Tong WANG
Qing LI
Gui-feng ZHANG
Gang ZHOU
Xin YU
Jing ZHANG
Xiu-mei WANG
Zhi-hui TANG
Fig.1  Tooth extraction and graft filling.
Fig.2  CBCT images showing the process of measurement of alveolar bone height and width. (a) By rotating and shifting the image, the long axis of the alveolar bone (determined from the long axis of the adjacent tooth) was adjusted to parallel with the green line (coronal slice). (b) The coronal slice. The yellow line indicates the reference plane, and the height of the alveolar bone. (c) At the same sagittal position, the blue line (axial slice) was shifted to make the distance between the axial slice and reference plane a certain value (9, 10 or 11 mm). (d) The axial slice. The yellow line indicates the width of the alveolar bone.
Fig.3  Bone defects preparation and bone graft filling.
Fig.4  Photographs of (a) the CHTS and (b) Bio-Oss Collagen.
Fig.5  SEM images of the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen: (a)(b) morphologies of Bio-Oss Collagen at 200× and 500× magnifications, respectively; (c)(d) morphologies of the CHTS at 200× and 500× magnifications, respectively. The blue arrows indicate collagen fibers, and the red arrows indicate mineral crystals.
Fig.6  (a) FTIR patterns of the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen. Both the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen shared the same organic and inorganic composition. Notes: red line, CHTS; blue line, Bio-Oss Collagen. The dashed lines indicate similar symbolic peaks in both groups: 1030 cm-1, ν3 vibration of PO43-; 602 and 566 cm-1, ν4 vibration of PO43-; 1547 cm-1, amide II; 1600 cm-1, amide I. (b) XRD spectra of the CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen. Notes: red line, CHTS; blue line, Bio-Oss Collagen; rhombus symbols indicate the symbolic peaks of HA; dashed at 23.4°–23.7° and 26.9°–27.4° demonstrate the symbolic peaks of β-TCP in CHTS.
Fig.7  The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell on CHTS and Bio-Oss Collagen.
Fig.8  CBCT slices at a typical site filled with CHTS: (a) Sagittal slice immediately after surgery; (b) Axial slice immediately after surgery; (c) Sagittal slice 2 months after surgery; (d) Axial slice 2 months after surgery. Notes: yellow points, markers of distance measurement; green lines, socket filled with CHTS; red lines, new bone formation in the socket.
Group Variables
ΔHR /mm ΔWR /mm Density variation /HU
CHTS 0.85±0.46 0.54±0.50 1566±194.66
Bio-Oss Collagen 1.25±0.74 0.67±0.30 1526±184.75
Control 2.11±0.61 1.14±0.59 1118±108.91
Tab.1  Results of variables of alveolar bone preservation in Beagle dogs
Comparison between groups Significances of differences
ΔHR ΔWR Density variation
CHTS vs. Bio-Oss Collagen p = 0.21 p = 0.51 p = 0.57
CHTS vs. Control **p<0.001 *p<0.05 **p<0.001
Bio-Oss Collagen vs. Control *p<0.05 *p<0.05 **p<0.001
Tab.2  Comparison of HR, WR, and density variations among groups
Fig.9  Light microscopic images of toluidine blue-stained ground sections of mandibular bones at 8 weeks after implantation in mandibular defects: (a) CHTS, 10×; (b) CHTS, 20×; (c) Bio-Oss Collagen, 10×; (d) Bio-Oss Collagen, 20×; (e) Blank, 10×; (f) Blank, 20×. Notes: NB, new formed bone; BG, bone graft; HS, Haversian structure system; arrows, the boundary of the bone graft and new osteoid precipitation.
1 Nussbaum B, Carrel R. The behavior modification of a dentally disabled child. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children, 1976, 43(4): 255–261
2 Chen S T, Buser D. Clinical and esthetic outcomes of implants placed in postextraction sites. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 2009, 24(Suppl): 186–217
3 Li X, Liu H, Niu X, . The use of carbon nanotubes to induce osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived MSCs in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo. Biomaterials, 2012, 33(19): 4818–4827
4 Shao S, Li B, Xue H M, . Effects of alveolar ridge preservation on delayed implant osseointegration. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2015, 8(7): 10773–10778
5 Tan W L, Wong T L, Wong M C, . A systematic review of post-extractional alveolar hard and soft tissue dimensional changes in humans. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 2012, 23(Suppl 5): 1–21
6 Araújo M G, Lindhe J. Dimensional ridge alterations following tooth extraction. An experimental study in the dog. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2005, 32(2): 212–218
7 Van der Weijden F, Dell’Acqua F, Slot D E. Alveolar bone dimensional changes of post-extraction sockets in humans: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2009, 36(12): 1048–1058
8 Tomlin E M, Nelson S J, Rossmann J A. Ridge preservation for implant therapy: a review of the literature. The Open Dentistry Journal, 2014, 8(1): 66–76
9 Park Y S, Kim S, Oh S H, . Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation methods using three-dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two-dimensional histometric evaluation. Imaging Science in Dentistry, 2014, 44(2): 143–148
10 Araújo M G, Lindhe J. Ridge preservation with the use of Bio-Oss collagen: A 6-month study in the dog. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 2009, 20(5): 433–440
11 Ashman A. Ridge preservation — the future practice of dentistry. Dental Economics-Oral Hygiene, 1995, 85(8): 80, 82–83
12 Yamasaki N, Hirao M, Nanno K, . A comparative assessment of synthetic ceramic bone substitutes with different composition and microstructure in rabbit femoral condyle model. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 2009, 91(2): 788–798
13 Schliephake H, Kage T. Enhancement of bone regeneration using resorbable ceramics and a polymer–ceramic composite material. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 2001, 56(1): 128–136
14 Sakai K, Hashimoto Y, Baba S, . Effects on bone regeneration when collagen model polypeptides are combined with various sizes of α-tricalcium phosphate particles. Dental Materials Journal, 2011, 30(6): 913–922
15 Li X, Wang L, Fan Y, . Nanostructured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2013, 101(8): 2424–2435
16 Kihara H, Shiota M, Yamashita Y, . Biodegradation process of α-TCP particles and new bone formation in a rabbit cranial defect model. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 2006, 79(2): 284–291
17 Li Q, Zhou G, Yu X, . A novel deproteinized bovine bone scaffold containing chitosan microspheres for controlled delivery of BMP-2. In: Liu H W, Wang G, Zhang G W, eds. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, 187–190
18 Zhou Y, Yao H, Wang J, . Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2015, 10: 3203–3215
19 Do A V, Khorsand B, Geary S M, . 3D printing of scaffolds for tissue regeneration applications. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2015, 4(12): 1742–1762
20 Li Q, Zhou G, Wang T, . Investigations into the biocompatibility of nanohydroxyapatite coated magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic situation. Journal of Nanomaterials – Special Issue on Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nanobiomaterials 2014, 2015, 835604 (10 pages)
21 MacMillan A K, Lamberti F V, Moulton J N, . Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2014, 9: 5627–5637
22 Mate S D V J, Calvo G J, Ramirez F M, . In vivo behavior of hydroxyapatite/β-TCP/collagen scaffold in animal model. Histological, histomorphometrical, radiological, and SEM analysis at 15, 30, and 60 days. Clinical Oral Implants Research, (in press)
doi: doi: 10.1111/clr.12656
23 Lim H C, Zhang M L, Lee J S, . Effect of different hydroxyapatite:β-tricalcium phosphate ratios on the osteoconductivity of biphasic calcium phosphate in the rabbit sinus model. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 2015, 30(1): 65–72
24 Huang Y, Zhou G, Zheng L, . Micro-/nano-sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage. Nanoscale, 2012, 4(7): 2484–2490
25 Vo T N, Kasper F K, Mikos A G. Strategies for controlled delivery of growth factors and cells for bone regeneration. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2012, 64(12): 1292–1309
26 Matsuno T, Nakamura T, Kuremoto K, . Development of β-tricalcium phosphate/collagen sponge composite for bone regeneration. Dental Materials Journal, 2006, 25(1): 138–144
27 Li X, Huang Y, Zheng L, . Effect of substrate stiffness on the functions of rat bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2014, 102(4): 1092–1101
28 Carlson G A, Dragoo J L, Samimi B, . Bacteriostatic properties of biomatrices against common orthopaedic pathogens. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2004, 321(2): 472–478
29 Hiraoka Y, Kimura Y, Ueda H, . Fabrication and biocompati-bility of collagen sponge reinforced with poly(glycolic acid) fiber. Tissue Engineering, 2003, 9(6): 1101–1112
30 Li X, Yang Y, Fan Y, . Biocomposites reinforced by fibers or tubes as scaffolds for tissue engineering or regenerative medicine. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2014, 102(5): 1580–1594
31 Yamauchi K, Goda T, Takeuchi N, . Preparation of collagen/calcium phosphate multilayer sheet using enzymatic mineralization. Biomaterials, 2004, 25(24): 5481–5489
32 Lawson A C, Czernuszka J T. Collagen–calcium phosphate composites. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 1998, 212(6): 413–425
33 Lee H R, Kim H J, Ko J S, . Comparative characteristics of porous bioceramics for an osteogenic response in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE, 2013, 8(12): e84272
34 Wong R W, Rabie A B. Effect of bio-oss collagen and collagen matrix on bone formation. The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal, 2010, 4(1): 71–76
35 Palachur D, Prabhakara Rao K V, Murthy K R, . A comparative evaluation of bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and type I collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) with bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and fibrin fibronectin sealing system (TISSEEL) in the treatment of intrabony defects: A clinico-radiographic study. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 2014, 18(3): 336–343
36 Nevins M L, Camelo M, Lynch S E, . Evaluation of periodontal regeneration following grafting intrabony defects with bio-oss collagen: a human histologic report. The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 2003, 23(1): 9–17
37 Cardaropoli D, Re S, Manuzzi W, . Bio-Oss collagen and orthodontic movement for the treatment of infrabony defects in the esthetic zone. The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 2006, 26(6): 553–559
38 Heinemann F, Hasan I, Schwahn C, . Bone level change of extraction sockets with Bio-Oss collagen and implant placement: a clinical study. Annals of Anatomy, 2012, 194(6): 508–512
39 Li Q, Zhou G, Yu X, . Porous deproteinized bovine bone scaffold with three-dimensional localized drug delivery system using chitosan microspheres. Biomedical Engineering Online, 2015, 14(1): 33
40 Hosseinzadeh E, Davarpanah M, Hassanzadeh Nemati N, . Fabrication of a hard tissue replacement using natural hydroxyapatite derived from bovine bones by thermal decomposition method. International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine, 2014, 5(1): 23–31
41 Antebi B, Cheng X, Harris J N, . Biomimetic collagen–hydroxyapatite composite fabricated via a novel perfusion-flow mineralization technique. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, 2013, 19(7): 487–496
42 Salomó-Coll O, Maté-Sánchez de Val J E, Ramírez-Fernandez M P, . Topical applications of vitamin D on implant surface for bone-to-implant contact enhance: a pilot study in dogs part II. Clinical Oral Implants Research, (in press)
doi: doi: 10.1111/clr.12707
43 Berglundh T, Lindhe J. Healing around implants placed in bone defects treated with Bio-Oss. An experimental study in the dog. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 1997, 8(2): 117–124
44 Piattelli M, Favero G A, Scarano A, . Bone reactions to anorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss) used in sinus augmentation procedures: a histologic long-term report of 20 cases in humans. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 1999, 14(6): 835–840
45 Carmagnola D, Adriaens P, Berglundh T. Healing of human extraction sockets filled with Bio-Oss. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 2003, 14(2): 137–143
46 Caubet J, Petzold C, Sáez-Torres C, . Sinus graft with safescraper: 5-year results. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2011, 69(2): 482–490
47 Chandran P L, Paik D C, Holmes J W. Structural mechanism for alteration of collagen gel mechanics by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Connective Tissue Research, 2012, 53(4): 285–297
48 Davidenko N, Schuster C F, Bax D V, . Control of crosslinking for tailoring collagen-based scaffolds stability and mechanics. Acta Biomaterialia, 2015, 25: 131–142
49 Panday V, Upadhyaya V, Berwal V, . Comparative evalution of G bone (hydroxyapatite) and G-graft (hydroxyapatite with collagen) as bone graft material in mandibular III molar extraction socket. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 2015, 9(3): ZC48–ZC52
50 Gérard C, Doillon C J. Facilitating tissue infiltration and angiogenesis in a tubular collagen scaffold. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2010, 93(2): 615–624
51 Chen P Y, Toroian D, Price P A, . Minerals form a continuum phase in mature cancellous bone. Calcified Tissue International, 2011, 88(5): 351–361
52 Esposito M, Grusovin M G, Kwan S, . Interventions for replacing missing teeth: bone augmentation techniques for dental implant treatment. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008, (3): CD003607
53 Lee J H, Kim J, Baek H R, . Fabrication of an rhBMP-2 loaded porous β-TCP microsphere-hyaluronic acid-based powder gel composite and evaluation of implant osseointegration. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2014, 25(9): 2141–2151
54 Hench L L, Polak J M. Third-generation biomedical materials. Science, 2002, 295(5557): 1014–1017
55 Wang L, Hu Y Y, Wang Z, . Flow perfusion culture of human fetal bone cells in large β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold with controlled architecture. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2009, 91(1): 102–113
56 Yu H D, Zhang Z Y, Win K Y, . Bioinspired fabrication of 3D hierarchical porous nanomicrostructures of calcium carbonate for bone regeneration. Chemical Communications, 2010, 46(35): 6578–6580
57 Wu W, Chen X, Mao T, . Bone marrow-derived osteoblasts seeded into porous β-tricalcium phosphate to repair segmental defect in canine’s mandibula. Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery, 2006, 12(4): 268–276
58 McAndrew M P, Gorman P W, Lange T A. Tricalcium phosphate as a bone graft substitute in trauma: preliminary report. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 1988, 2(4): 333–339
59 Simunek A, Kopecka D, Somanathan R V, . Deproteinized bovine bone versus β-tricalcium phosphate in sinus augmentation surgery: a comparative histologic and histomorphometric study. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 2008, 23(5): 935–942
60 Shavandi A, Bekhit A D, Ali M A, . Development and characterization of hydroxyapatite/β-TCP/chitosan composites for tissue engineering applications. Materials Science and Engineering C, 2015, 56: 481–493
61 Arahira T, Todo M. Effects of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on compressive mechanical behavior of collagen/β-TCP composite scaffold. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2014, 39: 218–230
62 Autefage H, Briand-Mésange F, Cazalbou S, . Adsorption and release of BMP-2 on nanocrystalline apatite-coated and uncoated hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate porous ceramics. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B, 2009, 91(2): 706–715
63 Shih Y R, Hwang Y, Phadke A, . Calcium phosphate-bearing matrices induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells through adenosine signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2014, 111(3): 990–995
64 Li X, van Blitterswijk C A, Feng Q, . The effect of calcium phosphate microstructure on bone-related cells in vitro. Biomaterials, 2008, 29(23): 3306–3316
65 Li X, Liu H, Niu X, . Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B, 2011, 97(1): 10–19
66 Hoppe A, Güldal N S, Boccaccini A R. A review of the biological response to ionic dissolution products from bioactive glasses and glass–ceramics. Biomaterials, 2011, 32(11): 2757–2774
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Ming LI,Pan XIONG,Maosong MO,Yan CHENG,Yufeng ZHENG. Electrophoretic-deposited novel ternary silk fibroin/graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings on titanium substrate for orthopedic applications[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2016, 10(3): 270-280.
[2] Shuang GAO,Zhiguo YUAN,Tingfei XI,Xiaojuan WEI,Quanyi GUO. Characterization of decellularized scaffold derived from porcine meniscus for tissue engineering applications[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2016, 10(2): 101-112.
[3] Tao SONG,Zhi-Ye QIU,Fu-Zhai CUI. Biomaterials for reconstruction of cranial defects[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2015, 9(4): 346-354.
[4] Yonghui LIU,Jun MA,Shengmin ZHANG. Synthesis and thermal stability of selenium-doped hydroxyapatite with different substitutions[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2015, 9(4): 392-396.
[5] Xianshuo CAO,Jun WANG,Min LIU,Yong CHEN,Yang CAO,Xiaolong YU. Chitosan-collagen/organomontmorillonite scaffold for bone tissue engineering[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2015, 9(4): 405-412.
[6] Ying DONG,Zhiye QIU,Xiaoyu LIU,Liqiang WANG,Jingxin YANG,Yifei HUANG,Fuzhai CUI. Biomechanical evaluation of different hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for keratoprosthesis[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2015, 9(3): 303-310.
[7] Qing-Xia ZHU,Ya-Ming LI,Dan HAN. Co-substitution of carbonate and fluoride in hydroxyapatite: Effect on substitution type and content[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2015, 9(2): 192-198.
[8] Ya-Wei DU,Li-Nan ZHANG,Xin YE,He-Min NIE,Zeng-Tao HOU,Teng-Hui ZENG,Guo-Ping YAN,Peng SHANG. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized collagen-coated polyetheretherketone (PEEK)[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2015, 9(1): 38-50.
[9] Yuan LIAN,Jian-Chao ZHAN,Kui-Hua ZHANG,Xiu-Mei MO. Fabrication and characterization of curcumin-loaded silk fibroin/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffold[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2014, 8(4): 354-362.
[10] Zhi-Ye QIU,Chun-Sheng TAO,Helen CUI,Chang-Ming WANG,Fu-Zhai CUI. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2014, 8(1): 53-62.
[11] Chong WANG,Min WANG. Electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2014, 8(1): 3-19.
[12] Hai-Yan XU,Ning GU. Magnetic responsive scaffolds and magnetic fields in bone repair and regeneration[J]. Front. Mater. Sci., 2014, 8(1): 20-31.
[13] Min-Dan WANG, Peng ZHAI, David J. SCHREYER, Ruo-Shi ZHENG, Xiao-Dan SUN, Fu-Zhai CUI, Xiong-Biao CHEN. Novel crosslinked alginate/hyaluronic acid hydrogels for nerve tissue engineering[J]. Front Mater Sci, 2013, 7(3): 269-284.
[14] Swamiappan SASIKUMAR. Effect of particle size of calcium phosphate based bioceramic drug delivery carrier on the release kinetics of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: an invitro study[J]. Front Mater Sci, 2013, 7(3): 261-268.
[15] Zi-Heng LI, Shi-Chen JI, Ya-Zhen WANG, Xing-Can SHEN, Hong LIANG. Silk fibroin-based scaffolds for tissue engineering[J]. Front Mater Sci, 2013, 7(3): 237-247.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed