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Frontiers of Materials Science

Front Mater Sci    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (1) : 1-27     DOI: 10.1007/s11706-013-0189-5
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Microstructural stability of 9--12%Cr ferrite/martensite heat-resistant steels
Wei YAN, Wei WANG, Yi-Yin SHAN, Ke YANG()
Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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Abstract

The microstructural evolutions of advanced 9--12%Cr ferrite/martensite heat-resistant steels used for power generation plants are reviewed in this article. Despite of the small differences in chemical compositions, the steels share the same microstructure of the as-tempered martensite. It is the thermal stability of the initial microstructure that matters the creep behavior of these heat-resistant steels. The microstructural evolutions involved? in? 9--12%Cr ?ferrite ?heat-resistant ?steels ?are ?elabo- rated, including (1) martensitic lath widening, (2) disappearance of prior austenite grain boundary, (3) emergence of subgrains, (4) coarsening of precipitates, and (5) formation of new precipitates, such as Laves-phase and Z-phase. The former three microstructural evolutions could be retarded by properly disposing the latter two. Namely improving the stability of precipitates and optimizing their size distribution can effectively exert the beneficial influence of precipitates on microstructures. In this sense, the microstructural stability of the tempered martensite is in fact the stability of precipitates during the creep. Many attempts have been carried out to improve the microstructural stability of 9--12%Cr steels and several promising heat-resistant steels have been developed.

Keywords heat-resistant steel      microstructure      martensite      precipitate      microstructural evolution     
Corresponding Authors: YANG Ke,Email:kyang@imr.ac.cn   
Issue Date: 05 March 2013
 Cite this article:   
Yi-Yin SHAN,Ke YANG,Wei YAN, et al. Microstructural stability of 9--12%Cr ferrite/martensite heat-resistant steels[J]. Front Mater Sci, 2013, 7(1): 1-27.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foms/EN/10.1007/s11706-013-0189-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foms/EN/Y2013/V7/I1/1
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ElementMass fraction /%
Steam pipes steelCladding structural steel
12CrMoVP91E911P929Cr3W3CoBEuro97CLAM9Cr2WVTaF82H
C0.20.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.1
Si-----0.050.010.20.1
Cr12.09.09.09.09.09.09.09.08.0
Mo1.01.01.00.5-----
W--1.01.83.01.01.52.02.0
Co----3.0----
Ni0.50.10.30.05-----
V0.30.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.2
Nb-0.050.050.060.05----
Ta-----0.080.100.070.04
N-0.060.070.06-0.020.020.02-
B---0.0010.014----
Tab.1  Chemical compositions of typical 9-12%Cr steels
Fig.1  Schematic microstructure of the as-tempered martensite steel. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2006 Elsevier)
Fig.2  Creep rupture strength of ferritic heat-resistant steels. (Reproduced with permissions from Refs. [-], Copyright 1997 and 2010 Elsevier)
Fig.3  Schematic illustration of creep strength mechanism map. (Reproduced with permissions from Refs. [-], Copyright 1997 and 2010 Elsevier)
Fig.4  TEM images of the 10%Cr steel under different creep conditions (600°C): 436 h at 320 MPa; 723 h at 300 MPa; 1599 h at 280 MPa; 3230 h at 250 MPa; 8354 h at 210 MPa; as-tempered. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2011 JMST)
Fig.5  Migration process of lath boundary during tempering at 667°C: 131 min; 133 min; 136 min; 147 min; 210 min. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2003 Maney Publishing)
Fig.6  TEM images showing the disappeared prior grain boundaries in a 10%Cr steel crept at 210 MPa and 600°C for 8354 h.
Fig.7  Micrographs illustrating subgrain evolution in CLAM steel: as tempered martensite; creep at 600°C for 98 h; aging at 600°C for 5000 h; aging at 650°C for 3000 h.
Fig.8  Micrograph showing the formation of subgrains in the interrupted creep sample of CLAM steel at 600°C under load of 100 MPa.
Fig.9  TEM observations of the dislocation features for a T91 specimen: undeformed; = 0.01; = 0.06 ( = 620 K). (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2010 Elsevier)
Fig.10  Schematically illustrating the evolution of martensite into subgrains.
Fig.11  TEM images showing the pinning effect of MC on subgrain boundaries in CLAM steel: crept sample at 600°C for 632 h under 150 MPa; aging sample at 650°C for 5000 h.
Fig.12  Microstructures of P91 steel as received and after creep at 600°C for 113,431 h (gauge). Typical EDS (field-emission-gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM)) spectra for MC carbides, Laves-phases and matrix, respectively. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2010 Elsevier)
Fig.13  MX carbonitrides in a 9%Cr steel showing the stability of MX carbonitrides: as-tempered; aging at 650°C for 4000 h.
Fig.14  Rectangular Laves-phase particles distributed along the lath boundary in a 10%Cr steel crept at 600°C: 250 MPa for 3230 h; 300 MPa for 723 h.
Fig.15  TEM graphs illustrating the growth of Laves-phase in the steel crept with load of 80 MPa at 600°C for 200 h: 10Cr-6W; 10Cr-6W-3Co. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2001 ISIJ)
Fig.16  Schematic diagram showing the nucleation and growth process of Laves-phase. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2006 Springer)
Fig.17  Series micrographs of FeW precipitation in δ-ferrite of 9Cr-4W steel. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 1991 Springer)
Fig.18  Laves-phase particles in a 10%Cr steel exposed at 600°C for 8354 h in the undeformed thread and the gauge length.
Fig.19  SEM images of creep damage in the P91 steel after creep at 600°C for 113 and 431 h 7 mm from the fracture surface: BSE-mode; SE-mode. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2010 Elsevier)
StateImpact toughness /J
Initial155
Aging at 600°C for 3500 h20
Aging at 600°C for 3500 h+ tempering at 760°C for 2 h153
Tab.2  The change of room temperature impact toughness in P92 steel after tempering at 760°C for 2 h
Fig.20  BSE images of the P92 steels before and after aging at 760°C for 2 h.
Fig.21  Two possible models of the Z-phase nucleation.
Fig.22  12%CrNbN experimental steel after 650°C/1000 h. (Reproduced from Ref. [])
Fig.23  TEM images of a FeTa Laves-phase strengthened steel, Ta7Cr (1%Ta, 7%Cr, in wt.%): as heat-treated initial microstructure; Laves-phase pinning subgrains during creep. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 1976 Springer)
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