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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2016, Vol. 9 Issue (1) : 71-80     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-016-0566-7
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
High-performance, stable and low-cost mesoscopic perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)-modified carbon nanotube cathodes
Xiaoli ZHENG,Haining CHEN,Zhanhua WEI,Yinglong YANG,He LIN,Shihe YANG()
Department of Chemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
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Abstract

This work explores the use of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs@P3HT) for the cathodes of hole transporter free, mesoscopic perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cells (PSCs), simultaneously achieving high-performance, high stability and low-cost PSCs. Here the thin P3HT modifier acts as an electron blocker to inhibit electron transfer into CNTs and a hydrophobic polymer binder to tightly cross-link the CNTs together to compact the carbon electrode film and greatly stabilize the solar cell. On the other hand, the presence of CNTs greatly improve the conductivity of P3HT. By optimizing the concentration of the P3HT modifier (2 mg/mL), we have improved the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of CNTs@P3HT based PSCs up to 13.43% with an average efficiency of 12.54%, which is much higher than the pure CNTs based PSCs (best PCE 10.59%) and the sandwich-type P3HT/CNTs based PSCs (best PCE 9.50%). In addition, the hysteresis of the CNTs@P3HT based PSCs is remarkably reduced due to the intimate interface between the perovskite and CNTs@P3HT electrodes. Degradation of the CNTs@ P3HT based PSCs is also strongly retarded as compared to cells employing the pure CNTs electrode when exposed to the ambient condition of 20%-40% humidity.

Keywords poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)      carbon nanotube      CH3NH3PbI3      mesoscopic perovskite solar cell (PSC)      carbon cathode     
Corresponding Authors: Shihe YANG   
Just Accepted Date: 21 December 2015   Online First Date: 14 January 2016    Issue Date: 18 March 2016
 Cite this article:   
Xiaoli ZHENG,Haining CHEN,Zhanhua WEI, et al. High-performance, stable and low-cost mesoscopic perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)-modified carbon nanotube cathodes[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2016, 9(1): 71-80.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-016-0566-7
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2016/V9/I1/71
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Xiaoli ZHENG
Haining CHEN
Zhanhua WEI
Yinglong YANG
He LIN
Shihe YANG
Fig.1  Schematic showing the fabrication processes of (a) CNTs@P3HT based C-PSCs, (b) CNTs based C-PSCs, and (c) sandwiched P3HT/CNTs based C-PSCs
Fig.2  (a) Top view and (b) cross sectional view SEM images of CH3NH3PbI3 film on FTO glass/c-TiO2/m-TiO2, showing that the size of the crystals is in the range of ~250-400 nm, the thickness of the m-TiO2/perovskite is ~400 nm, and the thickness of the perovskite capping layer is ~900 nm. (c) XRD pattern of the CH3NH3PbI3 film on FTO glass/c-TiO2/m-TiO2
Fig.3  SEM images of (a, b) CNTs@P3HT based C-PSCs, (c, d) CNTs based C-PSCs, and (e, f) sandwiched P3HT/CNTs based C-PSCs. The concentration of P3HT is 2 mg/mL and the concentration of CNTs is 10 mg/mL in chlorobenzene
Fig.4  (a) Raman spectra and (b) XRD patterns of pure P3HT, pure CNTs, and CNTs@P3HT films (2 mg/mL of P3HT). The inset in (b) shows magnified XRD patterns in the 5°-10° region. (c) Device configuration (left) and energy band diagram (right) of CNTs@P3HT based C-PSCs
Fig.5  (a) J-V curves of the C-PSCs with pure CNTs, CNTs@P3HT and sandwiched P3HT/CNTs cathodes (2 mg/mL of P3HT and 10 mg/mL CNTs); (b) J-V curves of the CNTs@P3HT based C-PSCs with different concentrations of P3HT (1, 2 and 5 mg/mL)
samplesVoc/VJsc/(mA·cm-2)FFPCE/%best PCE/%
CNTs-PSCs0.82±0.0120.14±1.850.60±0.049.91±0.5310.59
P3HT/CNTs-PSCs0.83±0.0218.66±1.260.55±0.028.47±0.649.50
1-CNTs@P3HT-PSCs0.86±0.0221.12±0.830.62±0.0311.25±0.6312.30
2-CNTs@P3HT-PSCs0.90±0.0222.21±0.770.63±0.0212.54±0.5113.43
5-CNTs@P3HT-PSCs0.86±0.0220.25±1.060.59±0.0310.27±0.5211.00
Tab.1  Photovoltaic performance summarization of C-PSCs based on different cathodes and different concentrations of P3HT. The data and statistics are based on 20 devices for each type
Fig.6  (a) J-V curves for the champion CNTs@P3HT-PSC measured with different scanning directions: forward scan from 0 V to Voc (black curve) and reverse scan from Voc to 0 V (red curve); (b) the corresponding IPCE spectrum of the CNTs@P3HT-PSC; (c) photocurrent density as a function of time held at the maximum output power point (0.70 V) under on-off illumination cycles for the CNTs@P3HT-PSC; (d) the efficiencies of the champion CNTs@P3HT-PSC and the champion CNTs-PSC as a function of storage time in the ambient atmosphere (temperature 25°C, humidity ~20%-40%). The concentration of P3HT is 2 mg/mL
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