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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2015, Vol. 8 Issue (4) : 351-378     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-015-0481-3
Laser-based micro/nanofabrication in one, two and three dimensions
Wei XIONG1,Yunshen ZHOU1,Wenjia HOU1,Lijia JIANG1,Masoud MAHJOURI-SAMANI1,Jongbok PARK1,Xiangnan HE1,Yang GAO1,Lisha FAN1,Tommaso BALDACCHINI2,Jean-Francois SILVAIN3,Yongfeng LU1,*()
1. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln NE 68588, USA
2. Technology and Applications Center, Newport Corporation, Irvine, CA 92606, USA
3. Institute of Chemistry of Condensed Matter of Bordeaux, ICMCB-CNRS 87, Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer F-33608 Pessac Cedex, France
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Advanced micro/nanofabrication of functional materials and structures with various dimensions represents a key research topic in modern nanoscience and technology and becomes critically important for numerous emerging technologies such as nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. This review systematically explores the non-conventional material processing approaches in fabricating nanomaterials and micro/nanostructures of various dimensions which are challenging to be fabricated via conventional approaches. Research efforts are focused on laser-based techniques for the growth and fabrication of one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) nanomaterials and micro/nanostructures. The following research topics are covered, including: 1) laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for highly efficient growth and integration of 1D nanomaterial of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 2) laser direct writing (LDW) of graphene ribbons under ambient conditions, and 3) LDW of 3D micro/nanostructures via additive and subtractive processes. Comparing with the conventional fabrication methods, the laser-based methods exhibit several unique advantages in the micro/nanofabrication of advanced functional materials and structures. For the 1D CNT growth, the laser-assisted CVD process can realize both rapid material synthesis and tight control of growth location and orientation of CNTs due to the highly intense energy delivery and laser-induced optical near-field effects. For the 2D graphene synthesis and patterning, room-temperature and open-air fabrication of large-scale graphene patterns on dielectric surface has been successfully realized by a LDW process. For the 3D micro/nanofabrication, the combination of additive two-photon polymerization (TPP) and subtractive multi-photon ablation (MPA) processes enables the fabrication of arbitrary complex 3D micro/nanostructures which are challenging for conventional fabrication methods. Considering the numerous unique advantages of laser-based techniques, the laser-based micro/nanofabrication is expected to play a more and more important role in the fabrication of advanced functional micro/nano-devices.

Keywords laser material interaction      carbon nanotubes (CNTs)      micro/nanofabrication      two-photon polymerization (TPP)      graphene      multi-photon ablation (MPA)     
Corresponding Authors: Yongfeng LU   
Just Accepted Date: 11 February 2015   Issue Date: 24 November 2015
 Cite this article:   
Wei XIONG,Yunshen ZHOU,Wenjia HOU, et al. Laser-based micro/nanofabrication in one, two and three dimensions[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2015, 8(4): 351-378.
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Yunshen ZHOU
Wenjia HOU
Jongbok PARK
Xiangnan HE
Yang GAO
Lisha FAN
Jean-Francois SILVAIN
Yongfeng LU

Summary of the synthetic methods for growing CNTs [3640]


(a) Schematic diagram of the LCVD process for growing CNTs; (b) photo of the home-built LCVD system


Vertically aligned CNT arrays grown by the LCVD process without applying electrical bias on the Ru electrodes. Scale bar: (a) 50 μm; (b) 10 μm;(c) 5 μm; (d) 2 μm.


(a) Horizontally aligned CNT arrays grown by the LCVD process by applying electrical bias on the Ru electrodes; (b) a typical Raman spectrum of the as-grown CNTs [52]


Numerical simulation results of (a) electrical field and (b) heat distributions around Ru tips [30]


Numerical simulation results of electrical field distribution in the Ru tip structure under the laser irradiation with (a) vertical and (b) horizontal E field polarizations; and the simulation results of heat distribution under the laser beam with (c) vertical (d) horizontal E field polarizations [57]


HFSS simulation results demonstrating the influence of the metallic film thickness on (a) electric near field and (b) localized heating around the tip apexes, respectively [58]


(a) Schematic of the LCVD fabrication process; (b) illustration of an SWNT-integrated bridge structure [57]


(a) SEM micrograph of the electrode pattern containing two pairs of tip-shaped electrodes; (b) SEM micrograph of the zoomed-in region of the electrode tips; (c) and (d) zoomed-in SEM micrographs showing the SWNT-integrated bridge structures in a side view and top view, respectively. The arrows in (c) and (d) indicate the location of the SWNT bridge [57]


(a) SEM micrograph of the electrode pattern containing four pairs of tip-shaped electrodes; (b) and (c) SEM micrographs of the square regions in (a), showing the SWNT-integrated bridge structures [57]


(a) SEM micrograph of the electrode pattern containing cross-shaped electrodes; (b) and (c) SEM micrographs of the square regions in (a), showing the SWNT-integrated bridge structures [57]


Illustration of the direct writing process for fabricating graphene nanoelectronics [78]


Two existing fabrication methods of LDW graphene ribbons. (a) Laser-assisted reduction of GO [79]; (b) laser-assisted CVD on Ni foil [81]


(a) Experimental schematic of the fabrication process via LDW of graphene patterns in ambient environment; optical (b) and Raman (c) images of the as-fabricated graphene patterns deposited on glass substrates [83]


Characterization of the as-fabricated graphene patterns on glass substrates. Optical micrographs of (a) “Graphene” text pattern; (b) a graphene spiral pattern; (c) arrays of graphene lines; (d) NAND circuit pattern; (e) SEM micrograph of graphene line; (f) typical Raman spectrum of the graphene patterns; (g) TEM micrograph of the graphene transferred on a Cu grid; (h) optical transmittance spectrum of the graphene film on a glass substrate fabricated by the LDW method [83]


Electrical characterization of graphene devices fabricated by the LDW method. (a) Optical micrograph of a four-terminal device for sheet resistance measurements; (b) I-V curve of the four-terminal electrical device with eight graphene straight line channels as shown in (a), the inset show an optical micrograph of one graphene channel between two Au contacts; (c) optical micrograph of electrical device with Greek-cross graphene pattern for Hall measurements. The insets in (a) and (c) show the zoomed-out optical micrographs of the parallel line and cross-bar graphene devices, respectively [83]


Flow chart of large-scale fabrication of graphene patterns toward the manufacture of graphene-based integrated circuits. (a) IC layout in the GDSII format; (b) an extracted metal layer layout in the GWL format; (c) fabricated graphene patterns on a glass substrate [83]


Characterization of voxel sizes in the additive TPP process. (a) Lateral and (b) vertical voxel sizes as a function of laser scanning speed at fixed laser power


Dependence of surface quality of 3D structures on different laser scanning parameters: parallel linear scanning mode of (a) 200-nm step; (b) 100-nm step; (c) 20-nm step, 1 h processing time; (d) annular scanning mode, 10-nm step, 20 min processing time


SEM images of various photonic crystal structures fabricated by additive TPP micro/nanofabrication. (a) Woodpile structures; (b) spiral arrange structures; (c) pyramid structures


SEM images of micro-lens arrays and optical cavity structures fabricated by additive TPP micro/nanofabrication. (a) Vertically-aligned aspheric lens array; (b) horizontally-aligned aspheric lens array; (c) vertically-aligned bi-convex lens array; (d) horizontally-aligned bi-convex lens array; (e) disk-shaped optical cavity for dye laser application; (f) spherical micro-lens array


SEM images of some examples of complex 3D structures fabricated by additive TPP micro/nanofabrication. (a) Side-view of a 3D NSF logo; (b) top-view of 3D NSF logo; (c) 3D Nebraska-Huskers logo


Micro/nanostructures fabricated by the subtractive MPA process in cured IP-L polymer films. (a) SEM micrograph of nano holes, the inset is a magnified image of a hole with a sharp edge and a pore diameter of 180 nm; (b) optical image of five micro-sized interconnected hollow rings resembling Olympic rings embedded in a cured IP-L polymer film created by MPA [119]


Schematic diagram of the comprehensive 3D micro/nanofabrication combining additive TPP and subtractive MPA processes [119]


SEM images of polymer fibers fabricated by the “TPP+MPA” method. (a), (c), (e) The arrays of fibers created by TPP with 2, 1 and 0.5 mm in diameters, respectively; (b), (d), (f) the arrays of fibers with periodic hole patterns after the MPA process [26].


2D meshed micro-fluidic channels inside IPL polymer fabricated by the “TPP+MPA” method. (a) Optical micrograph of a typical micro-fluidic channel inside a polymer cube; (b) SEM cross-section image of the micro-fluidic channel; (c) optical micrograph of the fabricated meshed micro-fluidic channels; (d) and (e) demonstrate the liquid flow inside the meshed channels at T = 0 and T = 10 s, respectively. The dash line shows the pathway of liquid flow through the meshed micro-fluidic channels [26]


3D spiral micro-fluidic channels inside a IPL polymer cube fabricated by the “TPP+MPA” method. (a) Schematic of the 3D spiral micro-fluidic channel; (b), (c), and (d) show the X-Y cross-sectional view of a spiral channel under a transmission-mode optical microscope at different focal planes (scale bar: 10 µm). The coil diameter of the spiral channel is 20 µm; (e) array of spiral micro-fluidic channels fabricated inside a polymer cube with a coil diameter of 5 µm and an inter-channel spacing of 3 µm [26]


Current existing methods for assembling CNTs [4347]

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