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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front Optoelec    2013, Vol. 6 Issue (1) : 30-45     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-012-0298-2
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Enabling technologies and challenges for transmission of 400 Gb/s signals in 50 GHz channel grid
Xiang ZHOU()
AT&T Labs–Research, Middletown, NJ 07748, USA
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Abstract

This paper reviewed the recent progress in transmission of 400 Gb/s, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) channels for optical networks based on the standard 50 GHz grid. We discussed the enabling modulation, coding, and line system technologies, as well as the existing challenges. It is shown that, 400 Gb/s per channel signal can be transmitted on the standard 50 GHz ITU-T grid at 8.4 b/ds/Hz net spectral efficiency (SE) over meaningful transmission reach for regional and metropolitan applications. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential for meeting the requirements of long-haul transmission applications.

Keywords modulation      coherent      quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)      fiber      capacity      reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM)      optical filtering      Nyquist pulse shaping     
Corresponding Authors: ZHOU Xiang,Email:zhoux@research.att.com   
Issue Date: 05 March 2013
 Cite this article:   
Xiang ZHOU. Enabling technologies and challenges for transmission of 400 Gb/s signals in 50 GHz channel grid[J]. Front Optoelec, 2013, 6(1): 30-45.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-012-0298-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2013/V6/I1/30
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Fig.1  Effective channel bandwidth versus modualtion SE at several FEC code rates for a 400GigE system
Fig.1  Effective channel bandwidth versus modualtion SE at several FEC code rates for a 400GigE system
Fig.1  Effective channel bandwidth versus modualtion SE at several FEC code rates for a 400GigE system
Fig.1  Effective channel bandwidth versus modualtion SE at several FEC code rates for a 400GigE system
Fig.2  Exemplary time-domain hybrid 32-64QAM that achieves SE of 5.33 bits/symbol
Fig.2  Exemplary time-domain hybrid 32-64QAM that achieves SE of 5.33 bits/symbol
Fig.2  Exemplary time-domain hybrid 32-64QAM that achieves SE of 5.33 bits/symbol
Fig.2  Exemplary time-domain hybrid 32-64QAM that achieves SE of 5.33 bits/symbol
Fig.3  Simulations of Nyquist pulse signaling. (a) Illustration of three Nyquist pulses in the time domain; (b) frequency-domain spectrum with roll-off factor= 0.01; (c) eye diagram of Nyquist-shaped 32-64 hybrid QAM signal
Fig.3  Simulations of Nyquist pulse signaling. (a) Illustration of three Nyquist pulses in the time domain; (b) frequency-domain spectrum with roll-off factor= 0.01; (c) eye diagram of Nyquist-shaped 32-64 hybrid QAM signal
Fig.3  Simulations of Nyquist pulse signaling. (a) Illustration of three Nyquist pulses in the time domain; (b) frequency-domain spectrum with roll-off factor= 0.01; (c) eye diagram of Nyquist-shaped 32-64 hybrid QAM signal
Fig.3  Simulations of Nyquist pulse signaling. (a) Illustration of three Nyquist pulses in the time domain; (b) frequency-domain spectrum with roll-off factor= 0.01; (c) eye diagram of Nyquist-shaped 32-64 hybrid QAM signal
Fig.4  (a) F-P equalizer (static optical equalizer based on F-P-filter); (b) simulated power transfer functions of F-P equalizer, WSS, and cascade of WSS and F-P equalizer. Details are given in the text and Eq. (1)
Fig.4  (a) F-P equalizer (static optical equalizer based on F-P-filter); (b) simulated power transfer functions of F-P equalizer, WSS, and cascade of WSS and F-P equalizer. Details are given in the text and Eq. (1)
Fig.4  (a) F-P equalizer (static optical equalizer based on F-P-filter); (b) simulated power transfer functions of F-P equalizer, WSS, and cascade of WSS and F-P equalizer. Details are given in the text and Eq. (1)
Fig.4  (a) F-P equalizer (static optical equalizer based on F-P-filter); (b) simulated power transfer functions of F-P equalizer, WSS, and cascade of WSS and F-P equalizer. Details are given in the text and Eq. (1)
Fig.5  Impact of carrier frequency drift on usable channel bandwidth
Fig.5  Impact of carrier frequency drift on usable channel bandwidth
Fig.5  Impact of carrier frequency drift on usable channel bandwidth
Fig.5  Impact of carrier frequency drift on usable channel bandwidth
Fig.6  450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM transmitter. VOA: variable attenuator, PC: polarization controller, PBS: polarization beam splitter
Fig.6  450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM transmitter. VOA: variable attenuator, PC: polarization controller, PBS: polarization beam splitter
Fig.6  450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM transmitter. VOA: variable attenuator, PC: polarization controller, PBS: polarization beam splitter
Fig.6  450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM transmitter. VOA: variable attenuator, PC: polarization controller, PBS: polarization beam splitter
Fig.7  Set-up for 5 × 450 Gb/s transmission over 800 km. OTF: optical tunable filter. ILF: interleaver filter. OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller
Fig.7  Set-up for 5 × 450 Gb/s transmission over 800 km. OTF: optical tunable filter. ILF: interleaver filter. OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller
Fig.7  Set-up for 5 × 450 Gb/s transmission over 800 km. OTF: optical tunable filter. ILF: interleaver filter. OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller
Fig.7  Set-up for 5 × 450 Gb/s transmission over 800 km. OTF: optical tunable filter. ILF: interleaver filter. OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller
Fig.8  Measurements of optical spectra for single channel with (thick) and without (thin) optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM
Fig.8  Measurements of optical spectra for single channel with (thick) and without (thin) optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM
Fig.8  Measurements of optical spectra for single channel with (thick) and without (thin) optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM
Fig.8  Measurements of optical spectra for single channel with (thick) and without (thin) optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM
Fig.9  Measurements of optical spectra of the five DWDM signals with optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM at the fiber launch
Fig.9  Measurements of optical spectra of the five DWDM signals with optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM at the fiber launch
Fig.9  Measurements of optical spectra of the five DWDM signals with optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM at the fiber launch
Fig.9  Measurements of optical spectra of the five DWDM signals with optical spectral shaping (a) before ROADM and (b) after ROADM at the fiber launch
Fig.10  OSNR sensitivity for 450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM signal
Fig.10  OSNR sensitivity for 450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM signal
Fig.10  OSNR sensitivity for 450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM signal
Fig.10  OSNR sensitivity for 450 Gb/s PDM-Nyquist-32QAM signal
Fig.11  Measured BER of five 450 Gb/s DWDM channels after 800 km transmission. The inset displays the measured BER for the center DWDM channel versus total launch power for all five 450 Gb/s channels
Fig.11  Measured BER of five 450 Gb/s DWDM channels after 800 km transmission. The inset displays the measured BER for the center DWDM channel versus total launch power for all five 450 Gb/s channels
Fig.11  Measured BER of five 450 Gb/s DWDM channels after 800 km transmission. The inset displays the measured BER for the center DWDM channel versus total launch power for all five 450 Gb/s channels
Fig.11  Measured BER of five 450 Gb/s DWDM channels after 800 km transmission. The inset displays the measured BER for the center DWDM channel versus total launch power for all five 450 Gb/s channels
Fig.12  (a) 504 Gb/s PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM transmitter; (b) offline DSP functional block daigram
Fig.12  (a) 504 Gb/s PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM transmitter; (b) offline DSP functional block daigram
Fig.12  (a) 504 Gb/s PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM transmitter; (b) offline DSP functional block daigram
Fig.12  (a) 504 Gb/s PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM transmitter; (b) offline DSP functional block daigram
Fig.13  Measured back-to-back BER performance versus the OSNR for single 504 Gb/s channel (before optical spectral shaping) (a) and for five individual subcarriers (b)
Fig.13  Measured back-to-back BER performance versus the OSNR for single 504 Gb/s channel (before optical spectral shaping) (a) and for five individual subcarriers (b)
Fig.13  Measured back-to-back BER performance versus the OSNR for single 504 Gb/s channel (before optical spectral shaping) (a) and for five individual subcarriers (b)
Fig.13  Measured back-to-back BER performance versus the OSNR for single 504 Gb/s channel (before optical spectral shaping) (a) and for five individual subcarriers (b)
Fig.14  Measured BER of center WDM channel vs. total launch power for two different amplification schemes, where the inset shows the measured optical spectrum of the five WDM channels launched into the ROADM
Fig.14  Measured BER of center WDM channel vs. total launch power for two different amplification schemes, where the inset shows the measured optical spectrum of the five WDM channels launched into the ROADM
Fig.14  Measured BER of center WDM channel vs. total launch power for two different amplification schemes, where the inset shows the measured optical spectrum of the five WDM channels launched into the ROADM
Fig.14  Measured BER of center WDM channel vs. total launch power for two different amplification schemes, where the inset shows the measured optical spectrum of the five WDM channels launched into the ROADM
Fig.15  BERs of all five 504 Gb/s WDM channels with co- and counter-pumped Raman
Fig.15  BERs of all five 504 Gb/s WDM channels with co- and counter-pumped Raman
Fig.15  BERs of all five 504 Gb/s WDM channels with co- and counter-pumped Raman
Fig.15  BERs of all five 504 Gb/s WDM channels with co- and counter-pumped Raman
Fig.16  Received constellation diagrams after 1200 km transmission for two subcarriers using different modulation formats. (a) Ch3, subcarrier 2, PDM-64QAM; (b) Ch3, subcarrier 5, PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM
Fig.16  Received constellation diagrams after 1200 km transmission for two subcarriers using different modulation formats. (a) Ch3, subcarrier 2, PDM-64QAM; (b) Ch3, subcarrier 5, PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM
Fig.16  Received constellation diagrams after 1200 km transmission for two subcarriers using different modulation formats. (a) Ch3, subcarrier 2, PDM-64QAM; (b) Ch3, subcarrier 5, PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM
Fig.16  Received constellation diagrams after 1200 km transmission for two subcarriers using different modulation formats. (a) Ch3, subcarrier 2, PDM-64QAM; (b) Ch3, subcarrier 5, PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM
Fig.17  Comparison between one-stage and two-stage equalization. For the two-stage case, Eq. (1) length was fixed at 21 taps while we increase the number of taps for Eq. (2)
Fig.17  Comparison between one-stage and two-stage equalization. For the two-stage case, Eq. (1) length was fixed at 21 taps while we increase the number of taps for Eq. (2)
Fig.17  Comparison between one-stage and two-stage equalization. For the two-stage case, Eq. (1) length was fixed at 21 taps while we increase the number of taps for Eq. (2)
Fig.17  Comparison between one-stage and two-stage equalization. For the two-stage case, Eq. (1) length was fixed at 21 taps while we increase the number of taps for Eq. (2)
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