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Frontiers of Architectural Research

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, Volume 6 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Architectural factors influencing the sense of home in nursing homes: An operationalization for practice
A. Eijkelenboom, H. Verbeek, E. Felix, J. van Hoof
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 111-122.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.02.004
Abstract   PDF (1508KB)

Various studies have shown that the architecture and design of a nursing home can have a profound impact on the sense of home of old people residing in the nursing home, next to psychological and social factors. However, adequate guidance on how these factors can be operationalized in practice is not provided for architects and interior designers. This study investigated which architectural factors contribute to a sense of home and how these can be implemented in the design guidelines. Two existing data sets were used, combining the most recent evidence from the literature and experiences of residents, family caregivers, and professional staff of Dutch nursing homes. These analyses resulted in theoretical implications for the private space, quasi-public space,the look and feel of the nursing home, and the outdoors. Furthermore, these analyses were used for the design of a demonstration apartment that integrates the factors of the sense of home. This description was concluded by a checklist for practice, in which design guidelines were formulated. A holistic understanding of which factors influence the sense of home could lead to improvements of the sense of home of nursing home residents.

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Externally-induced meditative states: an exploratory fMRI study of architects’ responses to contemplative architecture
Julio Bermudez, David Krizaj, David L. Lipschitz, Charles Elliott Bueler, Jadwiga Rogowska, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Yoshio Nakamura
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 123-136.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.02.002
Abstract   PDF (1159KB)

Built environments can induce contemplative states, but direct evidence for their impact on the brain is lacking. This exploratory work investigated brain correlates of internal states elicited by architecture designed for contemplative experience. Functional MRI and self-reports of 12 architects were assessed to study their responses to photographs of ordinary and contemplative architectures. Images of contemplative buildings: (1) induced attentive, receptive, and absorbing experiences and diminished internal dialogue; (2) involved decreased engagement of prefrontal cortex; and (3) activated the occipital lobe, precentral gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule. They suggest that viewing buildings designed for contemplation may evoke experiential and brain signatures that consistently differ from those induced by buildings that serve everyday functions. The depth of such externally induced states was inversely correlated with the engagement of the Default Mode Network. Our study points toward a novel avenue fo rinvestigating how contemplation can be cultivated in the human brain/mind.

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Nexus between the participation of residents in house design and residential satisfaction in Akure, Nigeria
Alexander Adeyemi Fakere, Olatunde Arayela, Clement Oluwole Folorunso
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 137-148.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.02.003
Abstract   PDF (823KB)

This study examined the relationship between residents’ level of participation in house design and level of residential satisfaction in Akure, Nigeria. The study was based on the idea that the goal of housing projects is to provide satisfactory environments for users. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 304 household heads in transitional and peripheral zones of thecity. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire and focus group discussionsand observations. The obtained data were subsequently subjected to single-factor descriptive analysis, mean satisfaction scoring, and categorical regression analysis. Results showed a positive significant relationship between the level of resident participation in house design and the level of residential satisfaction. The significant participatory predictors of satisfaction were number of bedrooms, general house design, development of the brief for the design, arrangement of interior spaces, and selection of finishing materials. Space size and building materials were not significant predictors in this context. The obtained p-value of 0.000 indicated that the regression mode laws significant. This study recommends a high level of resident participation in house design to achieve a high level of residential housing satisfaction in Nigeria.

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A study on courty ardapartment types in South Korea from the 1960s to 1970s
Namsu Jang, Sungil Ham
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 149-156.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.03.004
Abstract   PDF (1804KB)

In the 1960s, when apartments were being introduced in South Korea and were not yet standardized, diverse attempts at construction were made. However, due to factors such as the preference for houses that face south, apartment planning principles were unified. The present study intended to find out characteristics that can be applied to the current demands by studying cases of experimental plans among apartments, understanding the plans of courtyard apartments and classifying the cases into different types. The types of 29 courtyard apartments constructed in 1960–1970s in Seoul were analyzed. The apartments were classified into complex types that refer to cases where many buildings form a courtyard, block types, and open types.

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Integrating Appreciative Inquiry (AI) into architectural pedagogy: An assessment experiment of three retrofitted buildings in the city of Glasgow
Ashraf M. Salama, Laura Maclean
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 169-182.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.02.001
Abstract   PDF (2494KB)

Recently there has been a growing trend to encourage learning outside the classrooms, so-called ‘universities without walls.’ To this end, mechanisms for learning beyond the boundaries of classroom settings can provide enhanced and challenging learning opportunities. This paper introduces Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as a mechanism that integrates various forms of inquiry into learning. AI is operationalized as a Walking Tour assessment project which was introduced as part of the classCultural and Behavioural Factors in Architecture and Urbanismdelivered at the Department of Architecture, University of Strathclyde – Glasgow where thirty-two Master of Architecture studentswereenrolled.TheWalkingTourassessmentinvolvedtheexplorationof 6 factors that delineate key design characteristics in three retrofitted buildings in Glasgow: Theatre Royal, Reid Building, and The Lighthouse. Working in groups, students assessed factors that included context, massing, interface, wayfinding, socio-spatial, and comfort. Findings reveal that students were able to focus on critical issues that go beyond those adopted in traditional teaching practices while accentuating the value of introducing AI and utilizing the built environment as aneducational medium. Conclusions are drawn to emphasize the need for structured learning experiences that enable making judgments about building qualities while effectively interrogating various characteristics.

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Cultural schema and design activity in an architectural design studio
Gökçe Ketizmen Önal, Hülya Turgut
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 183-203.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.02.006
Abstract   PDF (1282KB)

Research on the cognitive activities and on the structure and quality of knowledge flow involved in architectural design education is increasing. These studies generally focus on the interaction between student and instructor, including processes such as producing ideas, solving display problems, and integrating design strategies. These studies commonly include computational evaluations and confirmation of the coding of knowledge. They may also include the determination of designer's thoughts and cognitive actions of design process, as well as the analysis and digitization of verbal protocols during the design process. In most of these studies, the designer's cultural and psychological components are not considered. Accordingly, research on the effects of designers’ cultural schema on design activity in design studios is limited. This study aimed to solve this problem by analyzing the relationship between design activity and the designer's cultural schema in a design studio. We performed an experimental study based on a specific conceptual framework and a research model aimed at identifying the relationships among cultural schemas, the architectural design process, and design studios.

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Appropriate teaching and learning strategies for the architectural design process in pedagogic design studios
Ashraf M. Soliman
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 204-217.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.03.002
Abstract   PDF (2048KB)

The national qualification framework of a country requires a certain level of knowledge and complexity of skills for an academic degree to be recognized. For architectural programs, student work load is heavy on design courses. Therefore, each course must be carefully developed to ensure that students are not over loaded. Teaching and learning strategies have different implications for courses, which occasionally result in over loading the students. This research aims to study the three main pillars of teaching and learning strategies for each design phase in pedagogic design studios. The most appropriate model for each teaching and learning strategy, including a set of the three main pillars, is then identified for each design phase. A practical strategy for managing design studios is also determined. The aforementioned three pillars are as follows: teaching and learning methods, assigned tasks or study aspects, and design communication techniques. Two research methods, namely, a literature review and a survey among design educators, are adopted. The literature review examines aspects that contribute to the design process and its phases, teaching methods, design skills, communication methods, and studio management strategies. On the basis of the literature review, the background of developments and practices in the design education process are used as constructive tools to develop the survey for design educators. Through the survey, the pillars of teaching and learning strategies that are frequently practiced in design studios are evaluated. Results of this study are classified into three ranks using the nature break classification method for numerical values. Subsequently, three priority models that correspond to teaching and learning strategies, as well as to the required skills and capabilities, are established. A group-based strategy with an interdisciplinary approach is also determined to be the most suitable technique for managing the pedagogy of architectural design studios to achieve holistic designs.

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A simplified tool for building layout design based on thermalcomfort simulations
Prashant Anand, Chirag Deb, Ramachandraiah Alur
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 218-230.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.03.001
Abstract   PDF (2517KB)

Thermal comfort aspects of indoor spaces are crucial during the design stages of building layout planning. This study presents a simplified tool based on thermal comfort using predicted mean vote (PMV) index. Thermal comfort simulations were performed for 14 different possible room layouts based on window configurations. ECOTECT 12 was used to determine the PMV of these rooms for one full year, leading to 17, 808 simulations. Simulations were performed for three different climatic zones in India and were validated using in-situ measurements from one of these climatic zones. For moderate climates, rooms with window openings on the south façade exhibited the best thermal comfort conditions for nights, with comfort conditions prevailing for approximately 79.25% of the time annually. For operation during the day, windows on the north façade are favored, with thermal comfort conditions prevailing for approximately 77.74% of the time annually. Similar results for day and night time operation for other two climatic zones are presented. Such an output is essential in deciding the layout of buildings on the basis of functionality of the different rooms (living room, bedroom, kitchen) corresponding to different operation times of the day.

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Sinan and Palladio: A comparative morphological analysis of two sacred precedents
Buthayna Eilouti
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 231-247.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.03.003
Abstract   PDF (5968KB)

An exploratory study on the design schemes underlying two architectural precedents is presented and discussed. The study compares the formalistic compositions of two prominent precedents on multip lelevels. These levels include the morphological, semantic, and pragmatic layers. The morphological aspects of these layers are emphasized. The study aims to identify the commonalities and differences between two cases of classical sacred architecture in terms of their morphometric and morpho syntactic structures. These cases are represented by Palladio's II Redentore Church and Sinan's Süleymaniye Mosque designs. The scope of the analysis focuses on the syntax and mathematics of the floor plans, and the facade and section of each case are referenced occasionally. Within this scope, the proportional system that regulates the compositions and eidonomy of the precedents are scrutinized. Findings resulting from the comparative analysis are reported and then discussed. The study shows that the two ostensibly different precedents share obscurely many commonalities, which are greater than what their initial appearances suggest.

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Improving urban visibility through fractal analysis of street edges: The case of John Evans Atta Mills High Streetin Accra, Ghana
R.A. Oppong, A.B. Marfuln, E.S. Asare
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 248-260.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.04.002
Abstract   PDF (4612KB)

Streets are a representation of cities, and the image of a city is a reflection of its home country. Although attempts to ensure harmonious spatial and environmental developmentin Ghanaian settlements date back to the colonial era, these efforts have minimal physical manifestation in the urban fabric of the city of Accra. The Independence Arch of Ghana, an important landmark in the urban fabric and history of Accra, lacks the striking vista and approach it deserves. This paper introduces the use of fractal analysis of street edges to understand the characteristics of the John Evans Atta Mills (JEAM) High Street for developing recommendations to improve visibility along its stretch and the overall image of the city. The box-counting method with visual survey was used in research. The pertinent questions this paper seeks to address are as follows: What factors affect the visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street? What design aspects should be considered to improve urban visibility along JEAM High Street? What is the link of fractals to urban design and architecture? The paper recommends various design considerations and qualities to improve the urban visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street.

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What is a Korean officetel? Case study on Bundang New Town
Emilien Gohaud, Seungman Baekn
Front. Archit. Res.. 2017, 6 (2): 261-271.   DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2017.04.001
Abstract   PDF (5105KB)

The purpose of this study is to identify a little-known element in Korea's housing typology: the officetel. A portmanteau of the English office and hotel, the officetel was originally a work facility with adjunct basic living amenities. It was introduced in the 1980s and became widespread in the 1990s and 2000s. Under heavy real estate pressure, its housing component was reinforced at the expense of polyvalent use. Legally ambiguous, the officetel converts urban zones that are officially dedicated to business activities into housing, and this conversion raises questions about the zoning system underlying Korea's land management.

Bundang is a satellite new town of Seoul, and its development coincides with that of the officetel. Witht his town as a case study, we clarify the concept of the officetel and analyze the different architectural forms it has generated. We use 12 representative cases to analyze the internal structure of the officetel and its relation to the city. We demonstrate that the officetel is a unique housing type, and its peculiar characteristics are relate dto its origin in office buildings. Such characteristics as high density, compactness, urban compatibility, and versa-tility should be valorized in the search for new urban housing forms in Korea.

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