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Frontiers of Architectural Research

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, Volume 7 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
On conservation issues of contemporary architecture: The technical design development and the ageing process of the Jubilee Church in Rome by Richard Meier
Luciano Cardellicchio
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 107-121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.03.005
Abstract   PDF (6651KB)

A vast amount of iconic buildings distinguished by complex geometries have been constructed in the last two decades in the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Portugal, France and Italy. Overall, the construction of these iconic buildings has led to technical innovations. As these buildings are often erected following customised construction details and bespoke technical solutions that are rarely tested in advance, measuring their ageing process has become crucial to understand if these geometries are sustainable in terms of the cost of their maintenance. This study aims to analyse the technical design development and the ageing process of the Jubilee Church in Rome by Richard Meier. Only fourteen years after the opening, this building is affected by extensive decay of construction materials due to both wrong technical design choices and lack of unaffordable maintenance work. This study aims to identify the causes of the premature decay of this building, recording retroactively its technical development and mapping the current state of damages.

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Study of the ornamentation of Bhong Mosque for the survival of decorative patterns in Islamic architecture
Madiha Ahmad, Khuram Rashid, Neelum Naz
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 122-134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.03.004
Abstract   PDF (6835KB)

Islamic architecture is rich in decorative patterns. Mosques were constructed in the past as simple buildings for offering prayers five times a day. However, in subsequent periods, various features of ornamentation in the form of geometry and arabesque were applied to the surfaces of mosques to portray paradise symbolically. This research applied descriptive approaches to examine the surviving patterns of the Aga-Khan-awarded Bhong Mosque and categorized these patterns as geometric and arabesque. This categorization was achieved by photography, use of software for patterns, and conducting interviews with local elderly persons in the region. The geometric patterns were simple 6- and 8-point star patterns. Several of the earliest examples of rosette petals exhibited 8- and 10-point star patterns and were categorized by incorporating the geometric style and location of mosques. This research investigated different arabesque categories and inscription types and determined the aesthetic and cultural reasons for their placement on various surfaces. Frescoes had different types of flowers, fruits, and leaves, and a few of them belonged to the local region.

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A crowd route choice evacuation model in large indoor building spaces
Y. Wu, J. Kang, C. Wang
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 135-150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.03.003
Abstract   PDF (3467KB)

Route choice is a fundamental requirement in the evacuation process. The aim of this paper is to identify a method to simulate crowds in large indoor spaces with consideration of the acoustic system. This paper first extends an existing cellular automaton model and proposes a cellular automaton crowd route choice model (CACR model) to simulate evacuees in large indoor spaces. It then defines a measure for evaluating the utility of evacuation time using the CACR model under different circumstances, such as a fire situation or different voice warning systems, which other commercial models cannot simulate. The analysis of the characteristics of a sound field in large indoor spaces is based on field measurements. An observation experiment in a gymnasium is employed to test the proposed model in a stadium evacuation scenario. The results demonstrate that the CACR model can accurately simulate the evacuation process in large indoor spaces under various circumstances.

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Verification tests of a mirror box type artificial sky without and with building scale model
Rizki A. Mangkuto, Mhd. Akbar Anthony Siregar
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 151-166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.03.001
Abstract   PDF (2858KB)

A mirror box type artificial sky for simulating the CIE standard overcast sky has been designed and constructed, while the verification method has been developed and tested. Ratio between the mirror height above the workplane and the room length is 60:133 or 0.451, whereas the ratio between the mirror height above the workplane and the room width is 5:9 or 0.556. Taking the CIE standard overcast sky as reference, indoor illuminance ratios at various elevation angles relative to the zenith is found to be more consistent than luminance ratios. The largest error of illuminance and luminance ratios are respectively 10% and 43%, obtained at 0° elevation angle. Horizontal workplane illuminance values are on average 11,400lx, with illuminance uniformity U0 and U1 of respectively 0.92 and 0.86. Based on test results with a building scale model, four out of nine measuring points inside the model have small errors, four have medium error, and one has a large error of 25%. Most of the obtained errors are within the tolerable range of ±21% from the ideal values. Based on the conducted tests, the constructed mirror box type artificial sky is considered appropriate to be utilized for its purpose.

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Evaluating diverse patterns of occupant behavior regarding control-based activities in energy performance simulation
Basak Gucyeter
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 167-179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.03.002
Abstract   PDF (2227KB)

Simulation is recognized as an effective tool for building energy performance assessment during design orretrofit processes. Nevertheless, simulation models yield deviating outcomes from the actual building performance and a significant portion of this deviation originates from the dynamic nature of occupant behavior. Literature on occupant behavior indicates that occupant behavior is not integrated into building energy performance assessment procedures with appropriate resolution, instead they are acceptedas as sumedand fixed data sets that usually represent the presence of occupants. This study attempts to evaluate the effect of diverse patterns of occupant behavior on energy performance simulation for office buildings. Diverse levels of sensitivity of occupant behavior on control-based activities such as using lighting apparatus, adjusting thermostat settings, and presence in space are employed through three diverse occupant behavior patterns. These occupancy patterns are correlated with three identical office spaces simulated within a conceptual office building. EDSL Tas is used to run building energy performance simulations. Effects of occupant behavior patterns on simulation outcomes are compared for five sample winter and summer workdays, with respect to heating and cooling loads. Results present findings on how diversity of occupancy profiles influences the consumption outcomes.

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Concept evolution in architectural design: an octonary framework
Buthayna Eilouti
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 180-196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.01.003
Abstract   PDF (4488KB)

A framework that integrates the fragmented elements of concept derivation, processing, and translation is developed and discussed. This framework aims to consolidate the divergent components of design conception into a comprehensive system that facilitates design conceptualization, initiation, and integration of various concept evolution phases, components, layers, and aspects. Accordingly, the framework describes a comprehensive approach based on a series of alternating divergence/convergence cycles. Subsequently, the approach encompasses a concept evolution process, derivation methods, aggregation/segregation technique, translation channels, and development layers. Each of the major divergent phases of the framework consists of eight parts. Furthermore, the skills and tasks associated with framework implementation are mapped into the main processing phases. The scope of this study is architectural design in higher education and practice. To demonstrate its applicability, the framework is implemented and illustrated by a case study. Reflections about its implementation and limitations are reported and discussed.

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Resident participation in urban renewal: Focused on Sewoon Renewal Promotion Project and Kwun Tong Town Centre Project
Yan Hong
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 197-210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.01.001
Abstract   PDF (2500KB)

This study aimed to identify problems related to resident participation by analyzing urban renewal projects. It attempted to draw specific measures to promote participation of residents that can be applied immediately and suggested practical ways to make use of resident participation at each stage of aproject.

The study, by closely examining the cases of Seoul and Hong Kong, is expected to help diversify ways to encourage residents participate in urban renewal projects and stimulate their active engagement. In light of its contribution to building up a constructive communication platform among administrations, experts, project managers, and residents, this study can serve as the basis material for carrying out projects effectively.

In this study, resident participation methods were classified according to the frequency of application in four items, namely, administration-led, expert-led, resident-led, and complex-led participation.

Improvement measures were suggested regarding resident participation based on leading entities. The measures suggested in this work willcontribute to the realization of “urban renewal projects for residents and communities and byresidents,” where residents actively engage in the overall project processes and, as the proponents of urban renewal, gradually be familiar with it; express their opinions regarding the project; and fully enjoy the benefits from the project.

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Socially responsive research-based design in an architecture studio
Carin Combrinck
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 211-234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.01.002
Abstract   PDF (21563KB)

Globally, the architectural profession faces complex challenges, bringing the transformation of the curriculum to the forefront of critical discourse. This article reflects on the Honors programme at the University of Pretoria Architecture Department during the first semester of 2016, where a research-based design approach has been established. In particular, the focus is on the informal settlement of Woodlane Village in Pretoria, situated on a contested site among private residential estates. From this study, it is argued that aresearch-based approach serves to prepare graduates for the complex decision-making and collaboration that is required for the development of socially responsive design.

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Investigating elective courses in architectural education
Mohammed Ghonim, Nehad Eweda
Front. Archit. Res.. 2018, 7 (2): 235-256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.03.006
Abstract   PDF (2637KB)

One of the approaches used by educational institutions to ensure that their programs reflect advances and changes in the architectural profession is the inclusion of elective courses. This study aims to establish a basis for integrating elective courses into architectural curricula by investigating the component of elective courses in 30 highly-ranked undergraduate architectural programs around the world. The need for this study arose as a result of the limited literature and lack of scientific foundation with which to support the process of merging elective courses into architectural curricula. This study has raised many questions in terms of direction, amount, subject, and timing of elective courses in architectural education. This study adopts an analytical deductive methodology supported by quantitative research. It is structured into four sections: topic overview, survey and its procedures, findings of the survey, anddiscussion. The discussion includes a proposal for integrating elective courses into architectural education. This study draws conclusions to its research questions, which broadens its impact on the quality of architectural programs and benefits for those concerned with architectural accreditation.

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