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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (3) : 286-297     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-016-0419-5
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Condition monitoring of a wind turbine generator using a standalone wind turbine emulator
Himani(),Ratna DAHIYA
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119, India
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Abstract

The intend of this paper is to give a description of the realization of a low-cost wind turbine emulator(WTE) with open source technology from graze required for the condition monitoring to diagnose rotor and stator faults in a wind turbine generator (WTG). The WTE comprises of a 2.5 kW DC motor coupled with a 1 kW squirrel-cage induction machine. This paper provides a detailed overview of the hardware and software used along with the WTE control strategies such as MPPT and pitch control. The emulator reproduces dynamic characteristics both under step variations and arbitrary variation in the wind speed of a typical wind turbine (WT) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The usefulness of the setup has been benchmarked with previously verified WT test rigs made at the University of Manchester and Durham University in UK. Considering the fact that the rotor blades and electric subassemblies direct drive WTs are most susceptible to damage in practice, generator winding faults and rotor unbalance have been introduced and investigated using the terminal voltage and generated current. This wind turbine emulator (WTE) can be reconfigured or analyzed for condition monitoring without the need for real WTs.

Keywords condition monitoring (CM)      wind turbine emulator (WTE)      wind turbine generator (WTG)      maximum power point tracking (MPPT)      tip speed ratio (TSR)      rotor faults      stator faults     
Corresponding Authors: Himani   
Just Accepted Date: 17 June 2016   Online First Date: 22 July 2016    Issue Date: 07 September 2016
 Cite this article:   
Himani,Ratna DAHIYA. Condition monitoring of a wind turbine generator using a standalone wind turbine emulator[J]. Front. Energy, 2016, 10(3): 286-297.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-016-0419-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2016/V10/I3/286
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Himani
Ratna DAHIYA
Fig.1  Failure rates for German and Danish power plants
Fig.2  A WTE

(a) Coupled motors; (b) mechanical model of a wind turbine

Parameter Value
Rated power/W 800
Rated wind speed/(m·s–1) 7.5
Radius of WT/m 1.5
Power coefficient 0.49
WT inertia coefficient (min — max)/(kg·m2) 0.08 – 0.18
Generator type SCIG
Drivetrain Direct
Tab.1  Wind turbine parameters
Fig.3  Block diagram of the system instrumentation
Fig.4  Equivalent of DC motor
Parameter Value
Rated power/kW, voltage/V, speed/(r·min–1) 2.5, 220, 1750
Armature current/A 7
Field current/A 0.9
Armature resistance/W, inductance/mH 4, 74
Field resistance/W, inductance/mH 300, 16.29
Mutual inductance/H 1.07
Inertia coefficient/(kg·m2) 0.15
Tab.2  Specifications of DC motor
Parameter Value
Rated power/kW, speed/(r·min–1) 1, 1500
Stator resistance/W 15.0
Stator leakage inductance/mH 754
Mutual inductance/mH 705
Rotor resistance/W 7.5
Rotor leakage inductance/mH 756
Tab.3  Parameters of induction generator
Fig.5  Current control circuit
Fig.6  Performance comparison of WTE reference parameters with actual experimental values under full load condition and at a constant wind speed of 7 m/s: actual current vs. reference current
Fig.7  Block diagram of the calculations of WTE
Fig.8  Application of varying wind speed from 6m/s to 7m/s
Fig.9  Performance comparison of WTE with step variations in wind speed: reference power and actual power
Fig.10  Performance comparison of WTE with step variations in wind speed: reference current and actual current
Fig.11  Application of arbitrary wind speed variations
Fig.12  Performance comparison of WTE with arbitrary variations in wind speed: reference power and actual power
Fig.13  Performance comparison of WTE with arbitrary variations in wind speed: reference current and actual current
Manchester Durham NITK
Generator Type DFIG or WRIG 30 kW WRIG 30 kW SCIG 1.5 kW
No. of poles 4 4 4
Converter Back-to-back, 8 kHz switching None None
DC Motor Driving motor (DC) 40 kW constant speed 54 kW variable speed 25 kW
Gearbox None 5:1 helical None
Data acquisition Hardware Precision oscilloscope NI LabVIEW Advantech
Sampling frequency/kHz 2 5 2
MATLAB FFT analysis 0–500 Hz 0–500 Hz
Tab.4  Comparison of test rigs
Frequency label Manchester Durham NIT Kurukshetra
a 261 262 260
b 361 361 336
c 53 54 50
d 154 154 143
e 257 257 241
f 365 366 350
Tab.5  Comparison of stator current spectra
Fig.14  Constant wind speed of 7m/s: terminal voltage in healthy conditions
Fig.15  Constant wind speed of 7m/s: generated current in healthy conditions
Fig.16  With load and constant wind speed of 7 m/s: terminal voltage in faulty conditions
Fig.17  With load and constant wind speed of 7m/s: generated current in faulty conditions
Fig.18  Power spectrum of voltage in healthy conditions under load condition at constant wind speed
Fig.19  Power spectrum of voltage in faulty conditions under load condition at constant wind speed
Fig.20  PSD of full load current at the constant wind speed of 7 m/s
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