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Frontiers in Biology

, Volume 13 Issue 6

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REVIEW
Intracellular trafficking of planar cell polarity proteins
Yan Huang, Tianji Ma, Yusong Guo
Front. Biol.. 2018, 13 (6): 395-405.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-018-1520-4
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BACKGROUND: Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a phenomenon in which epithelial cells are polarized along the plane of a tissue. PCP is critical for a variety of developmental processes and is regulated by a set of evolutionarily conserved PCP signaling proteins. Many of the PCP proteins adopt characteristic asymmetric localizations on the opposing cellular boundaries. Currently, the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain this PCP asymmetry remain largely unclear. Newly synthesized integral PCP proteins are transported along the secretory transport pathway to the plasma membranes. Once delivered to the plasma membranes, PCP proteins undergo endocytosis. Recent studies reveal insights into the intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins, suggesting that intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins contributes to establishing the PCP asymmetry.

OBJECTIVE: To understand the intracellular trafficking of planar cell polarity proteins in the secretory transport pathway and endocytic transport pathway.

METHODS: This review summarizes our current understanding of the intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins. We highlights the molecular mechanisms that regulate sorting of PCP proteins into transport vesicles and how the intracellular trafficking process regulates the asymmetric localizations of PCP proteins.

RESULTS: Current studies reveal novel insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins. This process is critical for delivering newly synthesized PCP proteins to their specific destinations, removing the unstable or mislocalized PCP proteins from the plasma membranes and preserving tissue polarity during proliferation of mammalian skin cells.

CONCLUSION: Understanding how PCP proteins are delivered in the secretory and endocytic transport pathway will provide mechanistic insights into how the asymmetric localizations of PCP proteins are established and maintained.

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Association of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review of literature
Karimeh Haghani, Pouyan Asadi, Gholamreza Taheripak, Ali Noori-Zadeh, Shahram Darabi, Salar Bakhtiyari
Front. Biol.. 2018, 13 (6): 406-417.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-018-1521-3
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BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and its prevalence continues to increase globally. The impact of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism on diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance (IR) has been implicated in several previous reports; however, the results of studies are confusing despite four decades of study.

METHODS/RESULTS: This review has evaluated updated understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism on type 2 diabetes, and found that mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism disorder induce the dysregulation of liver and pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.

CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism induce metabolic dysregulation and finally increasing the possibility of diabetes.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Process optimization of benzo[ghi]perylene biodegradation by yeast consortium in presence of ZnO nanoparticles and produced biosurfactant using Box-Behnken design
Sanjeeb Kumar Mandal, Nupur Ojha, Nilanjana Das
Front. Biol.. 2018, 13 (6): 418-424.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-018-1523-1
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BACKGROUND: Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing six fused benzene rings is considered as priority pollutant because of its carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and acute toxicity.

METHODS: The synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was done following the standard method. Biosurfactant production by yeast consortium YC04 in MSM was confirmed by various tests viz. drop collapse test, methylene blue agar plate method and emulsification test (E24) using the standard procedures. Efficiency of YC04 was tested to remediate BghiP in presence of ZnO nanoparticles and produced biosurfactant in the growth medium.

RESULTS: Response surface methodology (RSM), 3-level five variables Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the factors viz. pH 7.0, temperature 30°C, shaking speed 130 rpm, inoculum dosage 3% and ZnO nanoparticles concentration 2 g/L after a period of 6 days of incubation for the enhanced degradation of BghiP (63.83±0.01%). It was well in close agreement with the predicated value obtained by RSM model yield (63.83±0.08%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed F-value of 51.70, R2 of 0.9764, probability of<0.0001 and coefficient of variation of 1.25% confirmed the validity of the model. Degradation of BghiP was assessed using GC-MS and FTIR analysis. Kinetic study demonstrated that BghiP degradation fitted first order kinetic model.

CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on process optimization toward nanobioremediation of BghiP using yeast consortium in presence of ZnO nanoparticles and produced biosurfactant in medium.

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Design, molecular docking, synthesis, characterization, biological activity evaluation (against MES model), in-silico biological activity spectrum (PASS analysis), toxicological and predicted oral rat LD50 studies of novel sulphonamide derivatives
Ajeet, Arvind Kumar, Arun K. Mishra
Front. Biol.. 2018, 13 (6): 425-451.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-018-1512-4
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BACKGROUND: Among the reported potential agents to treat the epilepsy, sulphonamides are important and their significance cannot be ignored. A series of substituted 4-amino-benzene sulfonamides were designed, keeping in view the structural requirement of pharmacophore.

METHODS: Lipinski rule of five has been calculated; failure to Lipinski rule was not observed. Docking was performed through AutoDock Vina. Molecules have been screened out through docking. Compounds were synthesized and characterized through IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR, Mass and elemental analysis. The anticonvulsant activity of the synthesized compounds was assessed using the Maximal Electroshock Seizure (MES) model. In-silico biological activity spectrum, toxicological studies, predicted oral rats LD50 were performed.

RESULTS: Docking studies showed good interaction with lyase (Oxo-acid) - human carbonic anhydrase-I (1AZM). The in-silico studies proved them to be with good drug-likeness properties, especially 4-(3-Acetyl-phenylamino)-methyl)-benzenesulfonamide (2g). These results revealed that the synthesized compounds (1a-1c, 2a-2q) exhibited promising anticonvulsant effect against MES model for inhibition of Lyase- Human Carbonic Anhydrase-I.

CONCLUSION: After investigating all the results, the compound 4-(3-Acetyl-phenylamino)-methyl)-benzenesulfonamide (2g) is found to be best in the series. A comparatively good activity of compound 2g suggests us that sulphonamide can be leads to further optimization for building potent and chemically diversified anti-convulsant agents.

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